Official SAT Practice Test: Reading Section

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This full deconstruction of every question and every answer choice on the first official SAT practice reading test is brought to you by Dr. Matthew Kohler (aka Matt). Dr. Kohler creates (mostly free) test prep materials under the CrushTheTest (CTT) brand name.

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Reading Test

65 Minutes, 52 Questions

Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.

This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of Beauty by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in 1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the House of Fuji, a noble family.

Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his mother to speak to his father to approach a go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?

[5] He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda, so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps, the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a [10] calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.

Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt spread over the sides of the table so their legs were [15] tucked inside with the heat.

“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie questioned as she picked the name card off the maid’s lacquer tray.

“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.

[20] Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft intake of air.

“I think you should go,” said Naomi.

Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black [25] military-style uniform of a student. As he bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving [30] stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.

“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption, but I come with a matter of urgency.”

His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and stole a deferential peek at her face.

[35] In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity. Chie felt herself starting to like him.

“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely your business can wait for a moment or two.”

“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would [40] approach you more properly but I’ve received word of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”

“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement. “That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I [45] involved?”

Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message, delivered like a formal speech, filled her with maternal amusement. You know how children speak [50] so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about things that have no importance in an adult’s mind? That’s how she viewed him, as a child.

It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts [55] needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no effort to find her a husband.

Akira blushed.

“Depending on your response, I may stay in Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”

[60] Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night. “Does Naomi know anything of your . . . ambitions?”

“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal. I [65] ask directly because the use of a go-between takes much time. Either method comes down to the same thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to [70] America, to secure a new home for my bride.”

Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no more of your evening. My address is on my card. If [75] you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”

He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless grace, like a cat making off with a fish.

“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and [80] turned from the door. “He has asked you?”

The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were preposterous.

“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He [85] thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to America all in the snap of his fingers!”

Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.

Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke. [90] “I met him at my literary meeting.”

Naomi turned to go back into the house, then stopped.

“Mother.”

“Yes?”

[95] “I mean to have him.”

* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her family’s name

CTT Short and Sweet
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Boy breaks tradition, comes over to rich girl's house. He's polite but bold. Tells mom he wants to marry daughter. It's raining. He needs an answer soon. Mom is surprised. Daughter is on board.

SATANIC WORD COUNT: 759

CTT WORD COUNT: 34

1. Which choice best describes what happens in the passage?

CTT Match Method
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Boy shows up, asks to marry girl.

DON'T look at SATAN's choices right away. FIRST come up with your own simple answer. THEN match it to one of SATAN's choices.

Matching is FASTER than elimination because you'll zoom past SATAN's clever, confusing, tempting choices. Matching is BETTER than elimination because you won't fall into any of SATAN's evil traps.

Elimination has its place. You might have two close matches and then you have to pick the best one. Go for simple over complex in these cases. If there's no other way, I sometimes fall back on elimination. But matching is my go-to strategy; it's the reason I am now almost perfect on these tests.

A) One character argues with another character who intrudes on her home.

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Doesn't match. Move on.

SATAN figures you are using elimination and uses it against you. The boy did apologize for the disruption and Mom was not exactly happy about his request, so "intrudes" and "argues" make this choice tempting especially if you overthink it.

Matching allows me to very quickly move past what might otherwise be a tempting choice. Every day, I thank God for matching; this technique has saved my sorry tutor butt many, many times.

B) One character receives a surprising request from another character.

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BING! BING! BING! Matches perfectly. But wait! Let's check. Was it surprising? Yes, mom was stunned, blown away, set back on her heels, even shocked.

But wait again! Isn't this answer too vague? Where are the details? Isn't specific a good thing? Shouldn't we look for that in all answers?

You aren't in Kansas anymore. Welcome to SATAN's world. VAGUE IS GOOD. This was true on the old SAT and is still true on the new SAT.

C) One character reminisces about choices she has made over the years.

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Where does SATAN get this stuff? If you picked it, try matching. Make up your own, simple answer and pick the SATANIC answer that is closest to your (possibly better) answer.

Elimination, where you read the answers and then compare the two or three that look like they might be right, is often too TIME CONSUMING and can lead you straight into SATAN's arms. MATCHING WILL SAVE YOU FROM SATAN'S CLUTCHES.

D) One character criticizes another character for pursuing an unexpected course of action.

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Doesn't match. On the other hand, it's all true. She IS critical of him and his visit WAS unexpected. Very clever, SATAN.

Students are taught to be specific and SATAN knows this. On the SAT, more often than not, specific is a trick. It's fair; this choice is NOT a good description of the overall passage. But it's still a trick. Remember this rule: TOO SPECIFIC IS HORRIFIC.

Matching blocks SATAN very effectively on this one. Why? Because you would Never come up with anything close this answer on your own if you were asked to describe the passage as a whole. MATCHING = WINNING.

2. Which choice best describes the developmental pattern of the passage?

CTT Match Method
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Boy shows up, asks to marry girl.

Sure, it's boring to repeat answers, but boring is a weapon against SATAN. I'm sure as Hell not going to be fooled by all that "developmental pattern" crap. This is a regular old main idea question, just like the first one. Nice try, SATAN.

A) A careful analysis of a traditional practice

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Doesn't match so don't waste time wondering.

I know, we did learn a lot about Japanese marriage traditions, so even though it was just a conversation, you could S-T-R-E-T-C-H yourself into believing it was a careful analysis. It's meant to be tempting. OVERTHINKING is like selling your soul.

B) A detailed depiction of a meaningful encounter

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BING! BING! BING! But wait! Was it really detailed? Yes, they gave us the conversation word for word plus weather. Was it meaningful? Yes, marriage is a big deal even in SATAN's little world.

C) A definitive response to a series of questions

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SATAN loves putting the OPPOSITE of what is true down and trying to tempt people to go for it. Don't be embarrassed if you picked this one. Just use matching next time.

D) A cheerful recounting of an amusing anecdote

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Where does SATAN get these choices? Did you pick this one? So sorry. Use matching and you'll barely even notice the SATANIC bad answers. You'll be like a chess master — they don't even see the possible bad moves when they look at the board. Matching will make you master of SATAN.

3. As used in line 1 and line 65, “directly” most nearly means

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by himself.

"Akira came directly/by himself/alone/in-person, breaking all tradition."

A) frankly.

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Doesn't match. If you didn’t know the answer was “by himself,” you might pick this one because he is, after all, open and honest which you can think of as "frank." Tempting but wrong.

B) confidently.

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No match. He does display confidence. But the answer is “by himself.”

C) without mediation.

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Without mediation means without mom, without dad, no go-between (that was the term the passage used in both places), no middleman. Match!

D) with precision.

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Don’t feel bad if you picked this. Just use matching next time.

4. Which reaction does Akira most fear from Chie?

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That she will say No.

Note that this answer is perfectly correct and is the simplest, most obvious answer. SATAN's answer will be vague or disguised in some way, but it must match the simple version.

A) She will consider his proposal inappropriate.

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If the proposal is inappropriate, that might well torpedo it; she might say no. Match.

B) She will mistake his earnestness for immaturity.

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She did do just that. But it's not going to turn yes into no.

C) She will consider his unscheduled visit an imposition.

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Clever little SATAN. He is concerned about imposing. He even says “forgive my disruption.” But that's not going to turn yes into no either. Without my matching technique, I might have picked this. With matching, I’m safe from SATAN’s little tricks.

And yes, the SAT is full of tricks. They aren't unfair tricks, but they are tricks. Matching blocks almost all of them.

D) She will underestimate the sincerity of his emotions.

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Actually, she finds him rather sincere and he is not worried about this. So we can go back to choice (A).

5. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

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"Don't say No/Say yes/Yes is all that matters."

A) Line 33 (“His voice . . . refined”)

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"His voice was soft, refined." Not a match.

B) Lines 49-51 (“You . . . mind”)

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"You know how children speak so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about things that have no importance in an adult’s mind?"

Nothing about fear of saying No. Move on.

C) Lines 63-64 (“Please . . . proposal”)

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"Please don't judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal."

In other words, please don't say no. We have a winner.

D) Lines 71-72 (“Eager . . . face”)

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"Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full in the face."

Nothing about him being afraid she might say No.

6. In the passage, Akira addresses Chie with

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politeness, clarity, confidence, directness, earnestness.

A) affection but not genuine love.

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Affection isn't going to come until she's been his mother-in-law for a few years, if it ever does. No match.

B) objectivity but not complete impartiality.

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Ah, a good SATANIC trap. He's level-headed and tells it like it is and all that. So you could S-T-R-E-T-C-H and call him "objective." But objective means you see both sides. He doesn't. He's in love for goodness' sake. Anyway, no match.

C) amusement but not mocking disparagement.

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If you argued yourself into picking this and you aren't using matching, here's the deal: USE MATCHING. At SATAN's HQ they say things like, "Heh, heh, heh, we got someone to pick choice C, even though it's totally absurd, is that great or what?" Then they drink from their steaming cauldron of evil and laugh uproariously.

Elimination is SATAN's assistant. Don't fall for it. Use matching.

D) respect but not utter deference.

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My little list was plenty close enough for me to immediately identify this as the answer. Nevertheless, I have to admit SATAN actually had a better answer than mine: the kid in the passage knows what he wants and is very respectful, but he is also rather bold. Good job, SATAN.

7. The main purpose of the first paragraph is to

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wonder if following tradition would have been better.

A) describe a culture.

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No match. If you use elimination, there's a good chance you will pick this answer (and make SATAN very happy) because we do learn a little about traditional marriage proposals in the first paragraph. BUT the first paragraph is obviously about the kid worrying about having screwed things up, so you would most likely NOT come up with "describe a culture" or anything close to it on your own.

Smallpox is a dread disease that killed more people than all the wars ever fought put together. That was before the vaccine was invented. Smallpox was eradicated from the globe in the late 1970's. Elimination is the smallpox of multiple choice testing; it causes more wrong answers than any other test-taking technique. Matching is the vaccine. Get your shot today!

B) criticize a tradition.

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No doubt he doesn't like the tradition. But again, that's not the point and you would probably not come up with this on your own though it is tempting if you are using elimination. I hardly looked at it, NOT because I'm such an amazing genius. It's just that I use matching.

C) question a suggestion.

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Some teacher way back when taught you to use elimination on multiple choice tests and you did what the teacher said and you got into the habit and now you are an elimination ADDICT and easy pickings for SATAN.

Do the CrushTheTest twelve step program to fight the elimination addiction! You can do it. We believe in you. It's twelve easy steps: 1. MATCHING; 2. MATCHING; 3. MATCHING; 4. MATCHING; 5. MATCHING; 6. MATCHING; 7. MATCHING; 8. MATCHING; 9. MATCHING; 10. MATCHING; 11. MATCHING; 12. MATCHING. Really, it's that simple. Try it for a while and you'll never go back.

D) analyze a reaction.

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Technically, the poor, worried boy wondered if a different approach would have produced a different reaction. Is this analyzing a reaction? I would argue that he was analyzing his methods more than he was analyzing her reaction. But that's too picky here in SATAN's world. This one is the only choice even in the ballpark of my (correct) answer, so I picked it right away.

SATAN is the equivalent of a B+ student at a decent college. His answers are often a little weak and that can make the SAT harder because your answer might be better than SATAN's. In this case, SATAN is using the word "analyze" a little loosely, in my opinion. Still, he's in the ballpark.

Because I use matching, I picked SATAN's B+ answer very quickly and didn't worry too much about SATAN's imperfect use of the word "analyze."

8. As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means

CTT Match Method
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tradition, the way you're supposed to do it, correctness, proper procedures.

"Had he followed form/tradition/the rules/propriety . . . would Chie have bee more receptive?"

My answer, "tradition," is taken right from the passage. Sometimes I say (or even write down) a few words or phrases on these "how is this word being used" questions to help clarify the in-context meaning. Try the "multiple match" method if you find yourself getting these wrong a lot. You can also put SATAN's answer into the sentence and see how it reads if, for example, you are between two answers.

As I've aged I've picked up more and more words, so SATAN has a tough time getting me on vocabulary. But if you are faced with a hard version of this question with lots of obscure words, sometimes there is nothing you can do. If you don't know the word, you don't know the word. Note that it should fit pretty well, so if you know three choices really don't fit, don't be afraid to guess the fourth choice even if you don't know the word.

A) appearance.

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No match and wouldn't make sense if put in the sentence.

B) custom.

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BING! BING! BING!

C) structure.

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Sure, there is a structure to how to do things in Japan, but I wasn’t fooled because I had my answer already. Also, replacing “form” with “structure” in the sentence wouldn’t work.

D) nature.

9. Why does Akira say his meeting with Chie is “a matter of urgency” (line 32)?

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He needs an answer so he can figure out his life.

A) He fears that his own parents will disapprove of Naomi.

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He might, but there's nothing about that in the passage.

B) He worries that Naomi will reject him and marry someone else.

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He is the opposite of worried about Naomi.

C) He has been offered an attractive job in another country.

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Perfect match. Note that there could in theory be many reasons for his rushing, but the only reason he specifically talks about is the whole "maybe go to America and be a dentist" thing.

D) He knows that Chie is unaware of his feelings for Naomi.

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This is a true statement, so it makes a great trap. If you don't do matching, this one will tempt you. You can make up a good story here: knowing that mom isn't in the loop yet could, theoretically, worry the boy because mom might marry her daughter off to someone else. But there's nothing like that line of reasoning in the passage.

If you OVERTHINK, you'll make a lonely little devil very, very happy. If you find yourself mentally writing a long story to defend your answer, remember: TOO LONG IS TOO WRONG.

10. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

CTT Match Method
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"I've got this job thing, see, so I need to know soon."

A) Line 39 (“I don’t . . . you”)

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"I don’t want to trouble you."

Nope.

B) Lines 39-42 (“Normally . . . community”)

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"Normally I would approach you more properly but I’ve received word of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”

This is it of course. Note that SATAN doesn't always hate specificity. If it fits and matches and it's in the passage, it's fine.

C) Lines 58-59 (“Depending . . . Japan”)

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“Depending on your response, I may stay in Japan."

This is related to the question of urgency, but does not directly mention the job in America. SATAN likes direct.

D) Lines 72-73 (“I see . . . you”)

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"I see I've startled you."

No match.


Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

This passage is adapted from Francis J. Flynn and Gabrielle S. Adams, "Money Can't Buy Love: Asymmetric Beliefs about Gift Price and Feelings of Appreciation."

Every day, millions of shoppers hit the stores in full force—both online and on foot—searching frantically for the perfect gift. Last year, Americans spent over $30 billion at retail stores in the month of [5] December alone. Aside from purchasing holiday gifts, most people regularly buy presents for other occasions throughout the year, including weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, graduations, and baby showers. This frequent experience of gift-giving can [10] engender ambivalent feelings in gift-givers. Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers. At the same time, many dread the thought of buying gifts; they worry [15] that their purchases will disappoint rather than delight the intended recipients.

Anthropologists describe gift-giving as a positive social process, serving various political, religious, and psychological functions. Economists, however, offer [20] a less favorable view. According to Waldfogel (1993), gift-giving represents an objective waste of resources. People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to buy on their own, or at least not spend as much money to purchase (a phenomenon referred to as [25] "the deadweight loss of Christmas”). To wit, givers are likely to spend $100 to purchase a gift that receivers would spend only $80 to buy themselves. This ‘‘deadweight loss” suggests that gift-givers are not very good at predicting what gifts others will [30] appreciate. That in itself is not surprising to social psychologists. Research has found that people often struggle to take account of others’ perspectives— their insights are subject to egocentrism, social projection, and multiple attribution errors.

[35] What is surprising is that gift-givers have considerable experience acting as both gift-givers and gift-recipients, but nevertheless tend to overspend each time they set out to purchase a meaningful gift. In the present research, we propose a unique [40] psychological explanation for this overspending problem—i.e., that gift-givers equate how much they spend with how much recipients will appreciate the gift (the more expensive the gift, the stronger a gift-recipient’s feelings of appreciation). Although a [45] link between gift price and feelings of appreciation might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an assumption may be unfounded. Indeed, we propose that gift-recipients will be less inclined to base their feelings of appreciation on the magnitude of a gift [50] than givers assume.

Why do gift-givers assume that gift price is closely linked to gift-recipients’ feelings of appreciation? Perhaps givers believe that bigger (i.e., more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of [55] thoughtfulness and consideration. According to Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient and their willingness to invest resources in a future [60] relationship. In this sense, gift-givers may be motivated to spend more money on a gift in order to send a “stronger signal” to their intended recipient. As for gift-recipients, they may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger [65] signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.

The notion of gift-givers and gift-recipients being unable to account for the other party’s perspective seems puzzling because people slip in and out of these roles every day, and, in some cases, multiple [70] times in the course of the same day. Yet, despite the extensive experience that people have as both givers and receivers, they often struggle to transfer information gained from one role (e.g., as a giver) and apply it in another, complementary role (e.g., as [75] a receiver). In theoretical terms, people fail to utilize information about their own preferences and experiences in order to produce more efficient outcomes in their exchange relations. In practical terms, people spend hundreds of dollars each year on [80] gifts, but somehow never learn to calibrate their gift expenditures according to personal insight.

CTT Short and Sweet
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People give gifts a lot. They love it. They hate it. They spend ridiculous amounts of money. They think they are building friendships. They should know better.

SATANIC WORD COUNT: 652

CTT WORD COUNT: 27

11. The authors most likely use the examples in lines 1-9 of the passage (“Every . . . showers”) to highlight the

CTT Match Method
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fact that people buy lots of gifts.

A) regularity with which people shop for gifts.

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Easy match. Done.

Technically, this answer isn't perfect because "regularity" doesn't mean "frequent." Regularity of gift buying would mean on some sort of schedule, like every other Saturday. People don't buy gifts that way.

If you are extremely careful with language, you can talk yourself out of a correct answer. This one was close to my answer and none of the other answers match, so I didn't worry about the exact definition of "regularity."

B) recent increase in the amount of money spent on gifts.

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You would never have come up with this answer on your own, but you can argue yourself into it because there's a lot of talk about how much people spend on gifts. Don't argue yourself straight to Hell. Use matching.

Overly specific answer choices are one of SATAN's chief weapons. Specific is NOT always wrong, but it is often used to mislead. TOO SPECIFIC IS HORRIFIC.

C) anxiety gift shopping causes for consumers.

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At they end of their long list, they talked about people dreading gift-buying. If you work at it, you can convince yourself that maybe the list is there to set up the comment about dread. OVERTHINKING is one of many roads to Hell. This one didn't match my nice, simple "lots of gifts" answer, so I was not tempted.

D) number of special occasions involving gift-giving.

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Tempting. They did use the fact that there are lots of special occasions to make the more general point that gift giving is a big part of our lives. However, it was the general point they were trying to make.

As usual, TOO SPECIFIC IS HORRIFIC.

12. In line 10, the word “ambivalent” most nearly means

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Gift giving is both good AND bad.

"The frequent experience of gift-giving can engender ambivalent/multiple/opposite/simultaneously good and bad feelings in gift-givers . . ."

Ambivalent means you go back and forth, you can't decide, you are of two minds. People "relish" gift giving, but also "dread" it. It's a love-hate relationship. SATAN, probably for reasons having to do with his childhood, loves dichotomies like good/bad, love/hate, relish/dread, etc.

A) unrealistic.

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Let's try to force this one to be the right answer (we'll be going straight to Hell). Giving gifts but also avoiding giving gifts would be unrealistic and if you actually try to do both, you can't, so maybe this is what they mean by "ambivalent."

BEEP BOPP BEEEEEEP. That's the OVERTHINKING alarm playing its little tune. If this had been a real overthinking emergency, you would have chosen this answer and you would have gotten the question wrong.

Fortunately, "unrealistic" doesn't match "good and bad," so we can instantly move on.

B) conflicted.

C) apprehensive.

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Hmm. We could say loving and hating at the same time could make you apprehensive, theoretically. See the OVERTHINKING red light flashing? The smarter you are, the more likely you are to argue yourself straight to Hell. Keep it at the 3rd grade level and you'll be a lot cooler and a lot less sweaty.

D) supportive.

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No match. One way to tell this is wrong is that it is a positive word, but "ambivalent" is not a good thing in this context.

13. The authors indicate that people value gift-giving because they feel it

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makes your friends like you more/helps you connect with your friends/lets friends know you care.

A) functions as a form of self-expression.

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Tempting, fancy-pants answer. Did SATAN get you? Did you use matching? Hey, doing social signaling is a form of self expression, right? NOT. On the SAT, it's too fancy, too high-level, and doesn't match, so I wasn't tempted.

Do matching and keep it to a 3rd grade level. I know, I know you are applying to college and this test is supposed to get you into college. Unfortunately, SATAN uses your high-level reasoning against you. Don't fall for it. STAY IN THIRD GRADE. (You can go high-level when you get to college.)

B) is an inexpensive way to show appreciation.

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SATANIC opposite. It's too expensive, the passage says.

C) requires the gift-recipient to reciprocate.

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This is a good trap answer because lots of people give so they can get. But you would barely even look at this if you used matching.

D) can serve to strengthen a relationship.

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Matching got me here almost instantly. Some of the other choices might sound good, but you can breeze right past them if you use matching.

14. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

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"People give gifts to strengthen/improve relationships/friendships."

A) Lines 10-13 (“Many . . . peers”)

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"Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers."

This line is all about making friends. So this is the answer.

B) Lines 22-23 (“People . . . own”)

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"People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to buy on their own"

Nothing direct about making friends.

C) Lines 31-32 (“Research . . . perspectives”)

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"Research has found that people often struggle to take account of others’ perspectives"

Nothing direct about making friends.

D) Lines 44-47 (“Although . . . unfounded”)

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"Although a link between gift price and feelings of appreciation might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an assumption may be unfounded."

Nothing direct about making friends.

15. The “social psychologists” mentioned in paragraph 2 (lines 17-34) would likely describe the “deadweight loss” phenomenon as

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not surprising. (This is right out of the passage in line 30.)

A) predictable.

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Match. Done. Technically, they didn't say they could make any actual predictions, but don't be overly picky. It matches "not surprising" and you're done.

B) questionable.

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This is a nonsense answer.

C) disturbing.

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SATAN put this one because they talked about "deadweight loss" which might sound disturbing to you and cause you to pick an answer based on your personal feelings which is a classic trap. I mean, who wouldn't find "deadweight" disturbing? It sounds terrible. SATAN is a genius about this. He'll nail you every time. Of course, you would never make up the answer "disturbing" or anything close to it. But if you use elimination, it could pull you right in. Now THAT'S disturbing.

D) unprecedented.

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More nonsense. Doesn't match "not surprising."

16. The passage indicates that the assumption made by gift-givers in lines 41-44 may be

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not true.

The idea that big bucks mean your gift will be more appreciated may be "unfounded" (line 47) which means wrong/not true/can't be proven or something like that.

A) insincere.

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Insincere means phony and deceitful which is a bit different from just being wrong. Are we being too picky? Not in this case. We need "not true."

B) unreasonable.

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If someone tosses a coin and you say tails but it comes up heads, you are incorrect but certainly not unreasonable. Unreasonable is a strong word, so we are instantly suspicious of it.

This is a too-strong version of not true and is put there to tempt you. In this case, the passage actually says it is "intuitive" to assume that an expensive gift will be appreciated more. So it is perfectly reasonable even though it's not true.

A strong answer is sometimes okay, but is often a trick. TOO STRONG IS TOO WRONG. In general, if you are choosing between strong and bland/boring, choose bland/boring unless there's clear evidence in the passage that strong is called for.

C) incorrect.

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Ah! The beautiful simplicity of the (boring) perfect match. Don't be afraid of simple dichotomies like this one; SATAN loves them. Right vs Wrong, Correct vs Incorrect, Love vs Hate, Good vs Evil.

D) substantiated.

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SATANIC opposite. However, UNsubstantiated could be the answer.

17. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

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"Spending lots of money doesn't work."

A) Lines 53-55 (“Perhaps . . . consideration”)

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"Perhaps givers believe that bigger (i.e., more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration."

Translation: people think money will do the trick. Nothing about it not working.

B) Lines 55-60 (“According . . . relationship”)

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"According to Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient and their willingness to invest resources in a future relationship."

Translation: people give gifts to make friends. Nothing about it not working.

C) Lines 63-65 (“As . . . consideration”)

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"As for gift-recipients, they may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration."

Translation: people don't actually care how much your gift cost; they won't appreciate it more; it won't create a stronger friendship. Close enough to my answer: "expensive doesn't work."

D) Lines 75-78 (“In . . . relations”)

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In theoretical terms, people fail to utilize information about their own preferences and experiences in order to produce more efficient outcomes in their exchange relations.

Translation: gift givers ought to know better and stop wasting their money. Nothing DIRECT about expensive gifts not working. SATAN likes direct.

18. As it is used in line 54, “convey” most nearly means

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get across to someone that you care.

"Perhaps gift-givers believe that bigger gifts convey/give/get across/show stronger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration."

A) transport.

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You can convey a box from point A to point B and then it would mean transport, but you wouldn't use the word transport when talking about feelings. This is a trap answer because convey actually can mean transport in some contexts.

B) counteract.

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Nonsense answer.

C) exchange.

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This might tempt you if you want to think about gift giving as an exchange which it is in a way. But this is too fancy for SATAN.

D) communicate.

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Nice and simple and a perfect match. I wasn't tempted by any of the others only because I use matching. Matching turns medium questions into easy questions and hard questions into medium questions.

19. The authors refer to work by Camerer and others (line 56) in order to

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describe gift-giving as social signaling.

In lines 51-52, the authors ask why? do people think money buys appreciation. They propose that the answer is social signaling. Next, they say Camerer connects gift-giving and social signaling. Finally, the authors restate their proposed answer.

A) offer an explanation.

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This is an okay answer. Social signaling *explains* why people think money buys appreciation. However, the authors first give us their proposed explanation and only then mention Camerer's work.

B) introduce an argument.

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This is an okay answer. The authors *argue* that their proposed answer is correct after telling us about Camerer. However, they aren't exactly introducing an argument; instead, they are saying their answer fits with Camerer's work.

C) question a motive.

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This is the first one that isn't a possbility. Thank SATAN for small favors.

D) support a conclusion.

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This is an okay answer. The authors *concluded* that social signaling is the reason for giving expensive gifts and Camerer's work *supports* their conclusion. However, the authors said social signaling "may be" the reason, so "conclusion" may be too strong for what is really more of a suggestion.

We are, quite honestly, screwed. All three choices are perfectly correct though none are perfect. I tried this question on a writing expert at a big-name university and on a professional writer and on some other experienced professionals. No one I spoke to thought there was one correct answer.

In rare cases like this (one per test or so) where there are multiple correct answers, the trick is to remember SATAN is not that smart. He doesn't realize there are multiple answers because he hasn't thought about it carefully. So what do you do? Easy. Pick the SIMPLEST correct answer requiring the least amount of thought. If a more complex answer is better, it is NOT going to be SATAN's answer. Do NOT pick the best answer in cases like this. Pick the simplest.

The authors asked why? and gave an answer. Which is the simplest way to describe this process: "offer an explanation," "introduce an argument," or "support a conclusion"?

SATAN, of course, picked choice (A) "offer an explanation." You can make a nuanced argument for the other answers, but it will be beyond SATAN.

If you're still finding this one confusing, don't worry, you're not alone. SATAN has been throwing us the occasional whopper for decades. The more things change, the more they stay the same.

20. The graph following the passage offers evidence that gift-givers base their predictions of how much a gift will be appreciated on

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how much they spend.

Colleges like the ACT because the ACT has a lot of chart reading on it, and so SATAN has decided to include charts. For this question and the next, there is actually no need to look at the chart at all because we already know from the passage that gift-givers worship spending.

If you do look at the chart, you might notice that they have some weird "mean appreciation" scale. We don't care exactly what this is or how it is measured (SATAN doesn't know either, trust me).

Apparently gift-givers think fancy gifts get an appreciation of 6 or so compared to 5.5 for a cheap gift. Recipients actually seem rate the cheap gifts a little higher on the appreciation scale.

A) the appreciation level of the gift-recipients.

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That would be nice and rational, but of course then there would be nothing to discuss in the passage.

B) the monetary value of the gift.

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BING! BING! BING! Perfect match.

C) their own desires for the gifts they purchase.

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Nonsense. Not in the passage or in the graph for that matter.

D) their relationship with the gift-recipients.

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Also nonsense. Note that the graph is all about money.

21. The authors would likely attribute the differences in gift-giver and recipient mean appreciation as represented in the graph to

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stupid/clueless gift givers.

Any of these adjectives work: stupid, misled, confused, clueless, wrong, mixed up, bereft of knowledge, empty-headed, simple-minded, naive, weak-brained, hare-brained, half-witted, block-headed, obtuse, etc., etc.

There are specifics in the passage regarding exactly what is wrong with the gift-givers' reasoning (egocentrism, social projection, and multiple attribution errors, blah, blah, blah from lines 33 and 34). The great thing about the matching technique is that we can simplify all that fancy language to "stupid," get the answer, and move on without wasting time with the fancy language.

Watch out! SATAN's use of the phrase "would likely" is a trick. SATAN is hoping this trick will cause you to think outside the bounds of the passage and make up a "likely" scenario. Don't fall for it: "would likely attribute" simply means "did attribute."

Remember: SATAN IS INSECURE. He never strays far from the passage. The words "likely" and "implies" and "suggests" are SATANSPEAK for "definitely" and "states clearly" and "says." Once in a blue moon, SATAN will take a baby step away from the passage, but he never gets further than spitting distance.

A) an inability to shift perspective.

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This is a specific kind of cluelessness. Specificity that is not in the passage is often used as a trick; however, if it is clearly and directly stated in the passage and if it matches nicely with your answer, it's fine.

In this case, the last paragraph mentions explains that gift givers are "unable to account for the other party's perspective," (lines 66-67) so we're perfectly okay here; this time, the specificity is NOT a trick.

B) an increasingly materialistic culture.

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Doesn't match. Nothing direct here about clueless gift-givers.

This choice is designed by SATAN's minions to "tempt the hippie freaks." (I'm paraphrasing an internal email that was made public as part of a lawsuit many years ago against SATAN.) SATAN is hoping you will argue to yourself that materialism is responsible for people overspending on gifts. Then you can reason that it is "likely" the authors might agree with you. And you've fallen into the pit.

You would probably not come up with this answer on your own from reading the passage. But it is tempting once you read it. Matching will protect you from SATAN's traps.

C) a growing opposition to gift-giving.

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Gibberish. Obviously not a match. If you picked this one, there is one simple strategy for you: ALWAYS USE MATCHING.

D) a misunderstanding of intentions.

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The authors blamed the gift-givers for not having a clue. There was nothing about some kind of complex misunderstanding between gift-givers and recipients. This is tempting because of the word "misunderstanding," but isn't a match.

If you think REALLY hard, you could argue yourself into this one. If the person getting the gift just understood that the giver wanted to cement the friendship, they would appreciate the gift more, right? The authors might say something like this if they chose to focus on the recipients rather than on the gift givers. Sure. They might. And you might go straight to Hell.

When SATAN says, "likely" he is encouraging you to be thoughtful and creative. Don't fall for it. "Would likely attribute" simply means "said" in SATANSPEAK. On the SAT, CREATIVITY = DEATH.


Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.

This passage is adapted from J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick, “Genetical Implications of the Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid.” ©1953 by Nature Publishing Group. Watson and Crick deduced the structure of DNA using evidence from Rosalind Franklin and R. G. Gosling’s X-ray crystallography diagrams of DNA and from Erwin Chargaff’s data on the base composition of DNA.

The chemical formula of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is now well established. The molecule is a very long chain, the backbone of which consists of a regular alternation of sugar and phosphate groups. [5] To each sugar is attached a nitrogenous base, which can be of four different types. Two of the possible bases—adenine and guanine—are purines, and the other two—thymine and cytosine—are pyrimidines. So far as is known, the sequence of bases along the [10] chain is irregular. The monomer unit, consisting of phosphate, sugar and base, is known as a nucleotide.

The first feature of our structure which is of biological interest is that it consists not of one chain, but of two. These two chains are both coiled around [15] a common fiber axis. It has often been assumed that since there was only one chain in the chemical formula there would only be one in the structural unit. However, the density, taken with the X-ray evidence, suggests very strongly that there are two.

[20] The other biologically important feature is the manner in which the two chains are held together. This is done by hydrogen bonds between the bases. The bases are joined together in pairs, a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single [25] base from the other. The important point is that only certain pairs of bases will fit into the structure. One member of a pair must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine in order to bridge between the two chains. If a pair consisted of two purines, for [30] example, there would not be room for it.

We believe that the bases will be present almost entirely in their most probable forms. If this is true, the conditions for forming hydrogen bonds are more restrictive, and the only pairs of bases possible are: [35] adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. Adenine, for example, can occur on either chain; but when it does, its partner on the other chain must always be thymine.

The phosphate-sugar backbone of our model is [40] completely regular, but any sequence of the pairs of bases can fit into the structure. It follows that in a long molecule many different permutations are possible, and it therefore seems likely that the precise sequence of bases is the code which carries the [45] genetical information. If the actual order of the bases on one of the pair of chains were given, one could write down the exact order of the bases on the other one, because of the specific pairing. Thus one chain is, as it were, the complement of the other, and it is [50] this feature which suggests how the deoxyribonucleic acid molecule might duplicate itself.

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DNA is made of two chains. Bases pair off, adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine. The bases link the chains together. If you know the sequence of one chain, you know the sequence of the other chain. This is the secret of genetics.

SATANIC WORD COUNT: 470

CTT WORD COUNT: 44

22. The authors use the word “backbone” in lines 3 and 39 to indicate that

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there is a regular alternating structure.

I don't know exactly why they call it a "backbone" — I guess because a backbone has bumps and depressions that alternate. I just looked at lines 2-4 and focused on the words "regular" and "alternating."

A) only very long chains of DNA can be taken from an organism with a spinal column.

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Ridiculously literal.

B) the main structure of a chain in a DNA molecule is composed of repeating units.

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This is pretty close to my answer. I took a quick look at the others just to be sure.

C) a chain in a DNA molecule consists entirely of phosphate groups or of sugars.

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"Entirely" is a strong word and TOO STRONG IS TOO WRONG. It's incorrect for one thing and is not a match for another thing.

D) nitrogenous bases form the main structural unit of DNA.

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Actually it's the sugar-phosphate groups that make up the backbone. In any case, choice B is a much better match. Note the excessive specificity in the wrong answers.

23. A student claims that nitrogenous bases pair randomly with one another. Which of the following statements in the passage contradicts the student’s claim?

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Something about bases only pairing a certain way — the opposite of randomness.

A) Lines 5-6 (“To each . . . types”)

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"To each sugar is attached a nitrogenous base, which can be of four different types."

Nothing about limiting the pairing or preventing randomness.

B) Lines 9-10 (“So far . . . irregular”)

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So far as is known, the sequence of bases along the chain is irregular.

SATANIC opposite. Irregular is another way of saying random, so if this was all you knew, you might think the bases do pair randomly.

C) Lines 23-25 (“The bases . . . other”)

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"The bases are joined together in pairs, a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single base from the other."

Nothing direct about not being random. In theory, the bonding could somehow make the pairing not random, but there's nothing specifically stated to bring us there and the science on the SAT has to be fairly easy, so we move on.

D) Lines 27-29 (“One member . . . chains”)

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"One member of a pair must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine in order to bridge between the two chains."

Aha! The phrase "must be" goes nicely with the "not random" we're looking for. You can get all detailed about exactly which bases pair with each other, but you want to keep it simple and not waste time. This is it.

24. In the second paragraph (lines 12-19), what do the authors claim to be a feature of biological interest?

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Two chains, not one.

A) The chemical formula of DNA

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The chemical formula is mentioned, but the paragraph is extremely clear that that main thing they want to talk about is the two chains.

B) The common fiber axis

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The common fiber axis is mentioned, but this is not the main point the authors make about biologically important features. If you pick this or any other choice but D for this one, you MUST use matching. This is a dead easy question. Some people will get it wrong, but only by overthinking.

C) The X-ray evidence

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The X-ray evidence suggested strongly that there are two chains. The evidence isn't the biological feature, the two chains is. If you got this wrong, use matching next time, it will save you.

D) DNA consisting of two chains

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Of course, this is the answer. It was called a feature of "biological interest" in line 13. If you had even a moment's thought that any other answer could be correct, that's a great argument for using matching.

25. The authors’ main purpose of including the information about X-ray evidence and density is to

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show that there are two chains (lines 19-20).

A) establish that DNA is the molecule that carries the genetic information.

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Tempting but wrong. Fortunately, it doesn't match.

The authors were indeed trying to prove DNA = genetics. And since X-rays prove two chains and two chains helps prove that DNA = genetics, you could argue that therefore X-rays lead to DNA = genetics. But this argument, although there's nothing wrong with it, is too indirect for SATAN. SATAN LIKES DIRECT.

B) present an alternate hypothesis about the composition of a nucleotide.

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No match. Gibberish. I sometimes find SATAN's gibberish confusing if I stop to think about it. I start wondering where SATAN is getting it from. Fortunately, matching saves me from these wasteful thoughts when I'm taking a practice test. Because of matching, when I see gibberish, I skip right over it.

C) provide support for the authors’ claim about the number of chains in a molecule of DNA.

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BING! BING! BING! It's in lines 18-19: "However, the density, taken with the X-ray evidence, suggests very strongly that there are two."

D) confirm the relationship between the density of DNA and the known chemical formula of DNA.

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Sounds nice and fancy and scientific, but there's nothing about it in the passage. They say density and x-rays lead to two chains and that's that.

26. Based on the passage, the authors’ statement “If a pair consisted of two purines, for example, there would not be room for it” (lines 29-30) implies that a pair

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of purines is big.

My answer is obviously ridiculously simple. That's okay. The trick here is not to let the word "implies" take you off on some wild SATANIC goose chase. In this case, replace the word "implies" with the phrase, "is the same thing as saying" and you will be clearer on what to do.

A) of purines would be larger than the space between a sugar and a phosphate group.

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This fits pretty well with my answer. But the business about the space between a sugar and a phosphate group is an annoying detail. It's suspiciously specific. Is that really where the base pairs go? We'd better check the other answers.

B) of purines would be larger than a pair consisting of a purine and a pyrimidine.

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This is definitely true, matches nicely, and doesn't have any scary details that might be wrong. So this is my new top choice and is, in fact, the answer.

C) of pyrimidines would be larger than a pair of purines.

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SATANIC opposite. Purines are big. Pyr-whatever are small. All the jargon is intimidating. But note that the questions HAVE TO BE SIMPLE as in, "which are big and which are small?"

D) consisting of a purine and a pyrimidine would be larger than a pair of pyrimidines.

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Tricky. This choice is a true statement. But the quote in the question was about two purines and SATAN doesn't do indirect.

You could argue that including this choice is technically unfair because the fact that a pair of purines is too big to fit between the chains does, indirectly, imply the statement in this choice. Don't argue with SATAN. For the purposes of this test, you must think like SATAN. Repeat after me, DIRECT IS GOOD, INDIRECT IS BAD, I AM SATAN.

Here's an example to show why we don't argue with SATAN. SATAN said many years ago in a chemistry subject test that a combustion reaction does NOT involve (total) mass changes. A colleague of Einstein's (Banesh Hoffmann) pointed out in a letter to the College Board that ALL reactions involving energy always involve some mass changes (you know, E=mc2, the most famous equation since 1+1=2). SATAN would NOT admit to the error.

27. The authors’ use of the words “exact,” “specific,” and “complement” in lines 47-49 in the final paragraph functions mainly to

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say that if you know one chain, you automatically know the other chain.

A) confirm that the nucleotide sequences are known for most molecules of DNA.

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Nothing about one chain giving you the other chain.

B) counter the claim that the sequences of bases along a chain can occur in any order.

C) support the claim that the phosphate-sugar backbone of the authors’ model is completely regular.

D) emphasize how one chain of DNA may serve as a template to be copied during DNA replication.

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This is plenty close to one chain determines the other, so we're good to go.

28. Based on the table and passage, which choice gives the correct percentages of the purines in yeast DNA?

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Adenine and guanine are the purines; it's 31.3 and 18.7 for yeast.

This is meant to cost you time because you have to look up in the passage which is purine since it doesn't say in the table. If you are a test taker extraordinaire, you underlined lines 6-8 in the passage because you suspected this would be in a question. I don't do a lot of underlining, but it isn't a bad technique to develop if it works for you as it can save you time.

A) 17.1% and 18.7%

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This is of course a case where you need an almost perfect match.

B) 17.1% and 32.9%

C) 18.7% and 31.3%

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That's a perfect match except for the order which doesn't matter.

D) 31.3% and 32.9%

29. Do the data in the table support the authors’ proposed pairing of bases in DNA?

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Yes. There are two columns of roughly equal numbers for adenine and thymine and two columns of roughly equal numbers for guanine and cytosine. It's close enough to make us believe they are pairing off.

Don't look for anything fancy in these charts: about equal vs not equal; increasing vs decreasing; big vs small — that's SATAN's level of analysis.

A) Yes, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of thymine, and the percentage of guanine is closest to the percentage of cytosine.

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That's it. Two equal percentages. Note that they aren't exactly equal, but real science isn't perfect. There is always some error.

B) Yes, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of guanine, and the percentage of cytosine is closest to the percentage of thymine.

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Nope, adenine goes with thymine, not guanine.

C) No, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of thymine, and the percentage of guanine is closest to the percentage of cytosine.

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Once you know the answer is yes, you can safely not read this.

D) No, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of guanine, and the percentage of cytosine is closest to the percentage of thymine.

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No need to read if you know the answer is yes.

30. According to the table, which of the following pairs of base percentages in sea urchin DNA provides evidence in support of the answer to the previous question?

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Two numbers that are the same.

A) 17.3% and 17.7%

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Close enough. I guess SATAN could have taken numbers from another organism and tried to trick us with those, but he didn't bother, so we didn't have to check the table since the other choices were all way off.

B) 17.3% and 32.1%

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Don't even have to look at the table because there's only one close pair.

C) 17.3% and 32.8%

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Numbers are not the same.

D) 17.7% and 32.8%

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Not the same. Thank SATAN for quick ones.

31. Based on the table, is the percentage of adenine in each organism’s DNA the same or does it vary, and which statement made by the authors is most consistent with that data?

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Varies from 25 to 33 or so. Look for a statement about different amounts in different organisms.

A) The same; “Two of . . . pyrimidines” (lines 6-8)

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Has to be "It varies;" so ignore this one.

B) The same; “The important . . . structure” (lines 25-26)

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Has to be "It varies;" so ignore this one.

C) It varies; “Adenine . . . thymine” (lines 36-38)

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"Adenine, for example, can occur on either chain; but when it does, its partner on the other chain must always be thymine."

Says adenine goes with thymine. Nothing here about having different amounts of adenine in different organisms.

D) It varies; “It follows . . . information” (lines 41-45)

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"It follows that in a long molecule many different permutations are possible, and it therefore seems likely that the precise sequence of bases is the code which carries the genetical information."

"Different permutations" of bases is close enough to different amounts of bases. This is it.


Questions 32-41 are based on the following passage.

This passage is adapted from Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas. ©1938 by Harcourt, Inc. Here, Woolf considers the situation of women in English society.

Close at hand is a bridge over the River Thames, an admirable vantage ground for us to make a survey. The river flows beneath; barges pass, laden with timber, bursting with corn; there on one side are [5] the domes and spires of the city; on the other, Westminster and the Houses of Parliament. It is a place to stand on by the hour, dreaming. But not now. Now we are pressed for time. Now we are here to consider facts; now we must fix our eyes upon the [10] procession—the procession of the sons of educated men.

There they go, our brothers who have been educated at public schools and universities, mounting those steps, passing in and out of those [15] doors, ascending those pulpits, preaching, teaching, administering justice, practising medicine, transacting business, making money. It is a solemn sight always—a procession, like a caravanserai crossing a desert. . . . But now, for the past twenty [20] years or so, it is no longer a sight merely, a photograph, or fresco scrawled upon the walls of time, at which we can look with merely an esthetic appreciation. For there, trapesing along at the tail end of the procession, we go ourselves. And that [25] makes a difference. We who have looked so long at the pageant in books, or from a curtained window watched educated men leaving the house at about nine-thirty to go to an office, returning to the house at about six-thirty from an office, need look passively [30] no longer. We too can leave the house, can mount those steps, pass in and out of those doors, . . . make money, administer justice. . . . We who now agitate these humble pens may in another century or two speak from a pulpit. Nobody will dare contradict us [35] then; we shall be the mouthpieces of the divine spirit — a solemn thought, is it not? Who can say whether, as time goes on, we may not dress in military uniform, with gold lace on our breasts, swords at our sides, and something like the old [40] family coal-scuttle on our heads, save that that venerable object was never decorated with plumes of white horsehair. You laugh — indeed the shadow of the private house still makes those dresses look a little queer. We have worn private clothes so [45] long. . . . But we have not come here to laugh, or to

talk of fashions — men’s and women’s. We are here, on the bridge, to ask ourselves certain questions. And they are very important questions; and we have very little time in which to answer them. The [50] questions that we have to ask and to answer about that procession during this moment of transition are so important that they may well change the lives of all men and women for ever. For we have to ask ourselves, here and now, do we wish to join that [55] procession, or don’t we? On what terms shall we join that procession? Above all, where is it leading us, the procession of educated men? The moment is short; it may last five years; ten years, or perhaps only a matter of a few months longer. . . . But, you will [60] object, you have no time to think; you have your battles to fight, your rent to pay, your bazaars to organize. That excuse shall not serve you, Madam. As you know from your own experience, and there are facts that prove it, the daughters of educated men [65] have always done their thinking from hand to mouth; not under green lamps at study tables in the cloisters of secluded colleges. They have thought while they stirred the pot, while they rocked the cradle. It was thus that they won us the right to our [70] brand-new sixpence. It falls to us now to go on thinking; how are we to spend that sixpence? Think we must. Let us think in offices; in omnibuses; while we are standing in the crowd watching Coronations and Lord Mayor’s Shows; let us think . . . in the [75] gallery of the House of Commons; in the Law Courts; let us think at baptisms and marriages and funerals. Let us never cease from thinking—what is this “civilization” in which we find ourselves? What are these ceremonies and why should we take part in [80] them? What are these professions and why should we make money out of them? Where in short is it leading us, the procession of the sons of educated men?

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Women are now part of society and have the power to change it. Women must decide, right now, what sort of society they want.

SATANIC WORD COUNT: 737

CTT WORD COUNT: 24

32. The main purpose of the passage is to

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encourage women to consider their new role in society.

A) emphasize the value of a tradition.

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No match. SATANIC opposite. Traditions are mentioned, but only in the context of women now participating in them. The passage is definitely not an ode to tradition.

B) stress the urgency of an issue.

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Is the new role of women an "issue"? Sort of. We've got the usual SATANIC vagueness here.

Is urgency the main thing? Maybe. One could argue that the potential impact of women is more important point than the part about hurrying. But let's not ask too much of poor SATAN. This answer is okay.

Let us not wallow in hubris, but the truth is, SATAN is basically a B+ student. Your answer may well be an A, and so it might be a distant match to SATAN's answer, especially in cases like this where he gives us a B- special like "stress the urgency of an issue." Nevertheless, having your own good answer and then picking the only one of SATAN's answers that is even in the ballpark will save you time and prevent confusion when there's a B- answer and three D/F answers. You just have to keep SATAN's limitations in the back of your mind.

C) highlight the severity of social divisions.

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Actually, she's celebrating the ending of social divisions. Another SATANIC opposite.

D) question the feasibility of an undertaking.

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She's quite optimistic, actually. The author doesn't think it will be easy, but there's no question of feasibility in her mind. Another SATANIC opposite. So it is choice (B) after all even though it's a little below the usual SATANIC B+ standard.

33. The central claim of the passage is that

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women must consider their new role in society.

Yes, I am repeating myself. I hope fire is coming out of SATAN's ears. "Main purpose" and "central claim" are the same thing in SATAN's simple little world. Simplicity is your magic SATAN-killing sword. Wield it well.

A) educated women face a decision about how to engage with existing institutions.

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Thank God for small favors. SATAN got one right. Note that the women the author is talking about are indeed educated. Lines 12-17 make it clear education was key to women's new power.

B) women can have positions of influence in English society only if they give up some of their traditional roles.

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There may be trade-offs in terms of what roles individual women can simultaneously fill and this is surely a big issue. But it was not directly treated in the passage. This will tempt some people. I hardly looked at it because it wasn't a match to my simple answer.

C) the male monopoly on power in English society has had grave and continuing effects.

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Undoubtedly this is true, but again, it wasn't the point at all and would not be tempting to someone doing matching. What are the chances you would think of this answer yourself? Zero, I think.

D) the entry of educated women into positions of power traditionally held by men will transform those positions.

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This one is tempting too, but the author never gives any guarantees. The opportunity is there and decisions must be made — that's all she says. "Will tranform those positions" is just too strong. TOO STRONG IS TOO WRONG.

34. Woolf uses the word “we” throughout the passage mainly to

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refer to women in general.

A) reflect the growing friendliness among a group of people.

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No match. I'm sure women are friendly to each other, but that's not discussed.

B) advance the need for candor among a group of people.

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No match. There's nothing about questions of candor (honesty) in the passage.

C) establish a sense of solidarity among a group of people.

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Close enough. Solidarity implies unity, cooperation, and community, so this is okay as B+ answers go.

Actually, Woolf's term "we" refers to all women as a single group and reflects the commonality of experience of women historically. The term "solidarity" implies a unity of goals and actions which is probably more than Woolf was aiming for here.

One could easily argue that Woolf would regard a diverse universe of answers from different women to the questions about how to guide civilization as part and parcel of women's new freedom and power. So it's not at all clear that she would preach solidarity at this stage of the game. Solidarity was clearly needed to obtain what Woolf calls "that sixpence" in line 71, but might well be expected to give way to idiosyncratic approaches of many empowered women now that the "sixpence" is in hand. Of course, this level of discussion is well beyond SATAN.

I emphasize SATAN's limits here because many of my students think very deeply about the passages and about the questions and end up going way beyond anything SATAN ever does. So it's important to remember you are dealing with a B+ student here. This has been the case with the SAT for a long time; they don't employ professional writers and they don't actually make use of the college professors who read over their questions and rubber-stamp them.

D) reinforce the need for respect among a group of people.

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I'm sure Woolf believes in respect, but referring to women as a single group doesn't say anything directly about respecting one another. No match.

35. According to the passage, Woolf chooses the setting of the bridge because it

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is a good place from which to watch the goings-on of society.

A) is conducive to a mood of fanciful reflection.

B) provides a good view of the procession of the sons of educated men.

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Watching the "procession" is, of course, a metaphor for watching society do its thing ("preaching, teaching, administering justice . . ." from lines 15-16) so I think my answer is a little better than SATAN's. Either way, the bridge has a good view and that's all we need.

C) is within sight of historic episodes to which she alludes.

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Don't overthink. Stick to the passage. Also, use matching so these don't tempt you.

D) is symbolic of the legacy of past and present sons of educated men.

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Sounds all fancy and so is tempting. Temptation leads to eternal fires. Be not tempted by high-sounding words that ring of wonder and magic, but are not clearly supported by the passage. Matching will protect you from these evil temptations; you'll skim over the high sounding words like they are so much gibberish.

36. Woolf indicates that the procession she describes in the passage

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now has women in it.

A) has come to have more practical influence in recent years.

B) has become a celebrated feature of English public life.

C) includes all of the richest and most powerful men in England.

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Might be true but no match.

D) has become less exclusionary in its membership in recent years.

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In other words, now has women in it. Thank God for matching.

37. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

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"The procession has women in it now."

A) Lines 12-17 (“There . . . money”)

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"There they go, our brothers who have been educated at public schools and universities, mounting those steps, passing in and out of those doors, ascending those pulpits, preaching, teaching, administering justice, practising medicine, transacting business, making money."

Nothing about women.

B) Lines 17-19 (“It . . . desert”)

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"It is a solemn sight always — a proession, like a caravanserai crossing a desert . . ."

Nothing about women.

C) Lines 23-24 (“For . . . ourselves”)

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"For there, trapesing along at the tail end of the procession, we go ourselves."

Yes, ourselves. In other words, women. BING! BING! BING!

D) Lines 30-34 (“We . . . pulpit”)

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"We too can leave the house, can mount those steps, pass in and out of those doors, . . . make money, administer justice. . . . We who nowagitate these humble pens may in another century or two speak from a pulpit.

Talks about women, but not about women being in the procession.

38. Woolf characterizes the questions in lines 53-57 (“For we . . . men”) as both

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important, urgent, wide-ranging, impactful, a big deal, historic.

They are difficult and complex questions also, but the author doesn't directly say that.

A) controversial and threatening.

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A bit too negative. No match.

B) weighty and unanswerable.

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Too pessimistic. No match.

C) momentous and pressing.

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There we go. In other words, important and urgent. Matching wins again.

D) provocative and mysterious.

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Did you pick the high sounding words? Did you go to Hell? I like these words in particular. They make it sound glamorous and exciting. But this is the wrong answer. You would never have come up with "provocative and mysterious" on your own. But they sound nice, do they not? Remember who you're dealing with. This is SATAN. Use matching or burn.

39. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

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"This is a big deal (momentous); we'd better get on it (pressing)."

A) Lines 46-47 (“We . . . questions”)

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"We are here on the bridge, to ask ourselves certain questions."

Nothing direct about momentous and pressing.

B) Lines 48-49 (“And . . . them”)

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"And they are very important questions; and we have very little time in which to answer them."

Match.

C) Line 57 (“The moment . . . short”)

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"The moment is short."

Clever, SATAN. This is correct BUT only for ONE of the characterizations. This directly indicates urgency (pressing), but there is nothing direct about importance (momentous).

D) Line 62 (“That . . . Madam”)

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"That excuse shall not serve you, Madam."

A great line, but nothing direct about importance or urgency.

40. Which choice most closely captures the meaning of the figurative “sixpence” referred to in lines 70 and 71?

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The sixpence is the power/right/ability women now have to participate in society and perhaps change it.

A) Tolerance

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Tolerance is wonderful but has nothing to do with women's new power to change the world.

B) Knowledge

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Women have the "knowledge" they need to change the world. Hmm. Knowledge is power, I suppose. Could this be it? If it is, it's a C+ answer (SATAN is usually a B+ student).

The connection between "knowledge" and "power" (my answer) is a bit indirect for SATAN. Let's look at the other options. If there's nothing closer to "power/right/ability" we'll have to take this weak answer.

C) Opportunity

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Women now have the "opportunity" to change the world. That they do. The sixpence is better described as "power," but "opportunity" is okay too. I'll give SATAN an A- for this one. Good boy, SATAN.

D) Perspective

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This is the fanciest sounding answer. If you don't use matching, you might convince yourself that women have a whole new perspective because of their new influence on the world. But it's not nearly direct enough for SATAN. This is the trap answer because it sounds scholarly, but is really gibberish. Did you pick this? Are you using matching yet?

41. The range of places and occasions listed in lines 72-76 (“Let us . . . funerals”) mainly serves to emphasize how

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women can now have wide-ranging impact.

A) novel the challenge faced by women is.

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Nothing about women being everywhere and changing everything. No match.

B) pervasive the need for critical reflection is.

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Pervasive means everywhere and critical reflection is thinking. Woolf did say, literally, women must think in many places.

Obviously, Woolf is NOT saying there is some sort of unmet need for thought that women must fill. Instead, the list of places where women should think is Woolf's artful way of demonstrating that women's ideas can make a splash anywhere.

This is a weak, literal translation of Woolf's writing. In a college class it's worth about a C+. However, it is simple and direct, so it could be SATAN's answer even though it is below his usual B+ standard.

Unless choice (C) or (D) is a clear statement that women can make a difference almost anywhere, we're stuck with this one.

C) complex the political and social issues of the day are.

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We're looking for something about women's ability to have wide-ranging impact. You could get to "complex issues" from "wide-ranging impact," but it's an indirect route requiring overthinking. Better to go with the silly, direct, literal translation (choice B) even though it's a crappy, C+ answer. Remember, when choosing between two weak (C+) answers, ALWAYS go with the simplest.

The other poor question on this test, number 19, had multiple good answers in the B+/A- range. For the present question, we have NO good answer and must choose between two C+ answers. In both cases, we pick the simplest (NOT the best) of SATAN's choices.

The typical SAT question has one B+ answer and three D/F answers and is therefore easy. Occasionally, (e.g., question 40 above) you'll get a B+/A- answer and a C+ answer to choose between. Those are harder because you may be tempted by the C+ answer even if you are using matching.

The important point here is to do matching and to get used to matching your A-level answer to SATAN's B+ answer. Matching will help you skim over the D/F answers as if they aren't there. In rare cases with either multiple B+ answers or no B+ answers, ALWAYS GO SIMPLE.

D) enjoyable the career possibilities for women are.

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Hide Strategy

No match. It's about the heavy responsibility, not the fun.


Questions 42-52 are based on the following passages.

Passage 1 is adapted from Michael Slezak, “Space Mining: the Next Gold Rush?” ©2013 by New Scientist. Passage 2 is from the editors of New Scientist, “Taming the Final Frontier.” ©2013 by New Scientist.

Passage 1

Follow the money and you will end up in space. That’s the message from a first-of-its-kind forum on mining beyond Earth.

Convened in Sydney by the Australian Centre for [5] Space Engineering Research, the event brought together mining companies, robotics experts, lunar scientists, and government agencies that are all working to make space mining a reality. The forum comes hot on the heels of the [10] 2012 unveiling of two private asteroid-mining firms. Planetary Resources of Washington says it will launch its first prospecting telescopes in two years, while Deep Space Industries of Virginia hopes to be harvesting metals from asteroids by 2020. Another [15] commercial venture that sprung up in 2012, Golden Spike of Colorado, will be offering trips to the moon, including to potential lunar miners.

Within a few decades, these firms may be meeting earthly demands for precious metals, such as [20] platinum and gold, and the rare earth elements vital for personal electronics, such as yttrium and lanthanum. But like the gold rush pioneers who transformed the western United States, the first space miners won’t just enrich themselves. They also hope [25] to build an off-planet economy free of any bonds with Earth, in which the materials extracted and processed from the moon and asteroids are delivered for space-based projects.

In this scenario, water mined from other [30] worlds could become the most desired commodity. “In the desert, what’s worth more: a kilogram of gold or a kilogram of water?” asks Kris Zacny of HoneyBee Robotics in New York. “Gold is useless. Water will let you live.”

[35] Water ice from the moon’s poles could be sent to astronauts on the International Space Station for drinking or as a radiation shield. Splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen makes spacecraft fuel, so ice-rich asteroids could become interplanetary [40] refuelling stations.

Companies are eyeing the iron, silicon, and aluminium in lunar soil and asteroids, which could be used in 3D printers to make spare parts or machinery. Others want to turn space dirt into [45] concrete for landing pads, shelters, and roads.

Passage 2

The motivation for deep-space travel is shifting from discovery to economics. The past year has seen a flurry of proposals aimed at bringing celestial riches down to Earth. No doubt this will make a few [50] billionaires even wealthier, but we all stand to gain: the mineral bounty and spin-off technologies could enrich us all.

But before the miners start firing up their rockets, we should pause for thought. At first glance, space [55] mining seems to sidestep most environmental concerns: there is (probably!) no life on asteroids, and thus no habitats to trash. But its consequences —both here on Earth and in space—merit careful consideration.

[60] Part of this is about principles. Some will argue that space’s “magnificent desolation” is not ours to despoil, just as they argue that our own planet’s poles should remain pristine. Others will suggest that glutting ourselves on space’s riches is not an [65] acceptable alternative to developing more sustainable ways of earthly life.

History suggests that those will be hard lines to hold, and it may be difficult to persuade the public that such barren environments are worth preserving. [70] After all, they exist in vast abundance, and even fewer people will experience them than have walked through Antarctica’s icy landscapes.

There’s also the emerging off-world economy to consider. The resources that are valuable in orbit and [75] beyond may be very different to those we prize on Earth. Questions of their stewardship have barely been broached—and the relevant legal and regulatory framework is fragmentary, to put it mildly.

Space miners, like their earthly counterparts, are [80] often reluctant to engage with such questions. One speaker at last week’s space-mining forum in Sydney, Australia, concluded with a plea that regulation should be avoided. But miners have much to gain from a broad agreement on the for-profit [85] exploitation of space. Without consensus, claims will be disputed, investments risky, and the gains made insecure. It is in all of our long-term interests to seek one out.

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Passage 1: Companies are forming. They are going to mine metals and maybe get rich and create a space-based economy. Passage 2: Wait! We have to be careful about trashing space. We need rules.

SATANIC WORD COUNT: 775

CTT WORD COUNT: 31

42. In lines 9-17, the author of Passage 1 mentions several companies primarily to

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show that the space mining thing is for real.

Line 2: ". . . first-of-its-kind forum . . ." Line 8: ". . . make space mining a reality."

A) note the technological advances that make space mining possible.

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No match. Too detailed, too specific. There's nothing directly stated about technological advances.

B) provide evidence of the growing interest in space mining.

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BING! BING! BING! Match.

C) emphasize the large profits to be made from space mining.

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Trap answer if you are doing elimination. The passage said companies will "enrich" themselves so you might think mentioning companies might be all about money. But you would probably not come up with this answer on your own. It's ONLY tempting if you look at it without first making up your own answer.

D) highlight the diverse ways to carry out space mining operations.

Beat SATAN
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TOO SPECIFIC IS HORRIFIC. The passage didn't get nearly that specific or detailed.

43. The author of Passage 1 indicates that space mining could have which positive effect?

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Get metals we need.

There are probably a million positive effects of space mining, but this is the simplest and was directly mentioned. Simple is your main weapon against SATAN.

A) It could yield materials important to Earth’s economy.

B) It could raise the value of some precious metals on Earth.

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Sounds like a nice, complex, highly analyzed choice. Plus it could happen because the metals might be needed out in space . . . blah, blah, blah. Don't OVERTHINK. Use matching.

C) It could create unanticipated technological innovations.

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Probably true. Great trap answer. Spin-off tech mentioned in passage 2 but NOT directly in passage 1.

D) It could change scientists’ understanding of space resources.

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Gobbledygook. Meaningless gibberish sounds too fancy to understand. This makes it tempting. We don't even know what "understanding of space resources" means. Use matching; go directly to the right answer; skim right past the gibberish.

44. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

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"Earth will get metals."

A) Lines 18-22 (“Within . . . lanthanum”)

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"Within a few decades, these firms may be meeting earthly demands for precious metals, such as platinum and gold, and the rare earth elements vital for personal electronics, such as yttrium and lanthanum. "

We have a winner.

B) Lines 24-28 (“They . . . projects”)

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"They also hope to build an off-planet economy free of any bonds with Earth, in which the materials extracted and processed from the moon and asteroids are delivered for space-based projects."

This would be beneficial presumably, but not directly to earth.

C) Lines 29-30 (“In this . . . commodity”)

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"In this scenario, water mined from other worlds could become the most desired commodity."

Sure, it's good to be practical and it would be good to have space-based water, but there's nothing about supplying metals to earth.

D) Lines 41-44 (“Companies . . . machinery”)

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"Companies are eyeing the iron, silicon, and aluminium in lunar soil and asteroids, which could be used in 3D printers to make spare parts or machinery."

No match. It does talk about metals, but those metals would be used in space, not on earth. Tricky.

Despite repeated claims to the contrary, the test is, and always has been, full of tricks. They are not unfair tricks, but they are tricks. SATAN's tricks are aimed at people using elimination; they won't work on you if you use matching.

45. As used in line 19, “demands” most nearly means

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needs or requirements.

"Within a few decades, these firms may be meeting earthly demands/needs/requirements for precious metals . . ."

A) offers.

B) claims.

C) inquiries.

D) desires.

46. What function does the discussion of water in lines 35-40 serve in Passage 1?

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Water is good for drinking, shielding, and fuel.

I'm not falling for the SATANIC "function" of the paragraph nonsense. I just summarized it. This kind of simplicity is deadly to SATAN.

A) It continues an extended comparison that begins in the previous paragraph.

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Doesn't match and seems like gibberish.

But wait! The previous paragraph does a comparison between gold and water. Could this be a weak SATANIC answer? Gold isn't mentioned in this paragraph, but singing the praises of water could be viewed as continuing the comparison with gold from the previous paragraph.

It's a little suspicious. SATAN likes simple. Let's see if there's anything simpler.

B) It provides an unexpected answer to a question raised in the previous paragraph.

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SATANIC opposite. There's nothing unexpected about water being useful.

C) It offers hypothetical examples supporting a claim made in the previous paragraph.

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Yes, it gives examples of what water is good for. This is nice and simple and is a good match to my answer.

It is often the case that SATAN will point to a paragraph that gives examples and say "what is this paragraph doing?" and the answer will be "gives examples" and you will think this is too simple and not choose it. It's the old "so simple they won't choose it" trick. SATAN is soooo clever, it's just precious.

D) It examines possible outcomes of a proposal put forth in the previous paragraph.

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Sounds all fancy and sophisticated. We're really just talking about examples of water use; there's nothing about proposals and possible outcomes. But it sounds good. Nice try SATAN. Too bad for you I use matching.

47. The central claim of Passage 2 is that space mining has positive potential but

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could be bad if we don't make some rules.

A) it will end up encouraging humanity’s reckless treatment of the environment.

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Not a match. Too strong. The author is concerned, but not pessimistic. This is a great trap answer aimed at people SATAN calls "environment freaks" in his private emails as in, "this one will tempt the environment freaks." After all, if we don't regulate space, we might wreck it and the more people get away with this and make money from it, the more likely they will be to trash all kinds of environments. Watch out for college-level thinking. It's much safer to stay in 3rd grade.

B) its effects should be thoughtfully considered before it becomes a reality.

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Close enough. Boring is always a plus.

C) such potential may not include replenishing key resources that are disappearing on Earth.

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SATANIC opposite. Of course it would replenish resources, that's the whole point of space mining.

D) experts disagree about the commercial viability of the discoveries it could yield.

Beat SATAN
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This one is hard to even read. It's like someone tried to stuff a hotdog bun into my mouth. Yuck. Super complex, not in the passage, just gibberish really. Use matching. Keep it simple. I know I'm a broken record, but it makes all the difference for me. I've gotten to the point where I can get perfect scores on timed practice tests solely because of matching.

48. As used in line 68, “hold” most nearly means

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stick to your guns, believe in your principles.

"History suggests that those will be hard lines to hold/stick to/stay with/make permanent/set in stone, and it may be difficult to persuade the public that such barren environments are worth preserving."

A) maintain.

B) grip.

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Hold does mean grip, but in the sentence, it isn't hard to grip the lines, it's hard to keep the lines strong.

C) restrain.

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You aren't restraining the lines, you are building them up and sticking with them.

D) withstand.

Beat SATAN
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One way to see that "withstand" doesn't work is to put it in the sentence. Since ". . . hard lines to withstand . . ." doesn't make sense, this isn't it.

49. Which statement best describes the relationship between the passages?

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Passage 1: Space mining good. Passage 2: Space mining good especially with rules.

Note the power of simplicity here. Simplicity protects you from being slimed by SATANIC gobbledygook.

A) Passage 2 refutes the central claim advanced in Passage 1.

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No, Passage 2 adds some cautionary advice to Passage 1.

B) Passage 2 illustrates the phenomenon described in more general terms in Passage 1.

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Ooh, fancy, hard to understand. Must be right. NOT. Passage 1 is illustrative. Passage 2 is all about caution.

C) Passage 2 argues against the practicality of the proposals put forth in Passage 1.

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Tempting. Passage 2 says we can do it, but we should do it right. You could argue that doing it without rules would impact practicality but — can you feel yourself getting too complex? — SATAN likes simple. We need Passage 1 says, "isn't this cool" and Passage 2 says, "yes, but." We need super simple.

D) Passage 2 expresses reservations about developments discussed in Passage 1.

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This is not perfect. But the caution urged by Passage 2 could be called "reservations" if you are a B+ student and aren't that careful with your words.

Here's a better answer for you sticklers out there: "Passage 2 urges caution, thoughtfulness, and long-term thinking as we pursue the positive developments discussed in Passage 1." But A-level answers would make the SAT too easy. Come on, where's your sense of FUN? Give poor SATAN a break! He's just trying to keep it interesting.

50. The author of Passage 2 would most likely respond to the discussion of the future of space mining in lines 18-28, Passage 1, by claiming that such a future

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needs rules.

Always interpret SATAN's "would most likely respond" as "did actually say." SATAN never speculates. SATAN is like an infant: if he can't put it in his mouth, it doesn't exist.

A) is inconsistent with the sustainable use of space resources.

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TOO STRONG IS TOO WRONG. The Passage 2 guy isn't uptight or pessimistic. He likes the idea of mining and he certainly did not say it is unsustainable. He said (essentially), "it could be great if we have rules."

B) will be difficult to bring about in the absence of regulations.

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Match. Put in some regulations and all will be well.

C) cannot be attained without technologies that do not yet exist.

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He never said we couldn't do it, just that we need rules. Don't you love how SATAN asks the same question again and again?

D) seems certain to affect Earth’s economy in a negative way.

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Nothing about needing rules. No match. Also, the guy is nowhere near that pessimistic. "Seems certain" is suspiciously strong.

51. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?

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"Rules are good/bring on the rules/make some rules/we need rules."

A) Lines 60-63 (“Some . . . pristine”)

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"Some will argue that space’s “magnificent desolation” is not ours to despoil, just as they argue that our own planet’s poles should remain pristine."

Nothing direct here about needing rules.

B) Lines 74-76 (“The resources . . . Earth”)

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"The resources that are valuable in orbit and beyond may be very different to those we prize on Earth."

Nothing about rules.

C) Lines 81-83 (“One . . . avoided”)

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"One speaker at last week’s space-mining forum in Sydney, Australia, concluded with a plea that regulation should be avoided."

This is the opposite of needing rules. I hope the next one is right because none of these first three match.

D) Lines 85-87 (“Without . . . insecure”)

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"Without consensus, claims will be disputed, investments risky, and the gains made insecure."

In other words, we need rules or it will all go to pieces. This is it.

52. Which point about the resources that will be highly valued in space is implicit in Passage 1 and explicit in Passage 2?

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We're looking for something about resources from Passage 2 that was also clear from Passage 1.

Remember, SATAN doesn't do "implicit." You never have to read between the lines on the SAT. The bit about resources has to be clear as day in BOTH passages but will perhaps be slightly clearer (explicit) in Passage 2.

A) They may be different resources from those that are valuable on Earth.

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It's in both passages. Done. Pick this and move on.

Passage 2, line 74: "The resources that are valuable in orbit may be very different from those we prize on earth." (This is an explicit statement.)

Passage 1, line 33: "Gold is useless. Water will let you live." (This is "implicit" in SATAN's dark little world because you'd have to think for a microsecond to realize this is saying water is more valuable than gold in space.)

B) They will be valuable only if they can be harvested cheaply.

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Neither passage says or implies this absurd idea. Space mining will be anything but cheap.

C) They are likely to be primarily precious metals and rare earth elements.

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Passage 1 lists metals but Passage 2 doesn't name any actual metals.

D) They may increase in value as those same resources become rare on Earth.

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Neither passage mentions this although it seems like a strong possibility. This makes it a good trap answer because it is probably true, but wrong as an answer because it's not actually in the passages.

Congratulations. If you've gone through all this, you now belong to the secret matching club. When you get really good at matching, you'll wonder why you ever broke your brain doing elimination.

Now that you are in the club, the only thing between you and a perfect score on the reading section is speed and vocabulary. Practice a lot to build speed.

I don't recommend word lists for vocabulary building. Over the years, if you read a lot, you'll have a good vocabulary, but I wouldn't bother trying to build it for the test unless you have at least a year to study and even then you'll have to make it a point to use the words as you learn them.

Your time is best spent doing practice test after practice test. It's like running faster. If you want to run faster, run a lot. Simple, but not necessarily easy. Dig in and best of luck on the real thing! Have a question? Send me an email (drmatthewkohler@gmail.com).