Official SAT Practice Test: Reading Section
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65 Minutes, 52 Questions
Questions 1-10 are based on the following passage.
This passage is from Lydia Minatoya, The Strangeness of Beauty by Lydia Minatoya. The setting is Japan in 1920. Chie and her daughter Naomi are members of the House of Fuji, a noble family.
Akira came directly, breaking all tradition. Was that it? Had he followed form—had he asked his mother to speak to his father to approach a go-between—would Chie have been more receptive?
 He came on a winter’s eve. He pounded on the door while a cold rain beat on the shuttered veranda, so at first Chie thought him only the wind. The maid knew better. Chie heard her soft scuttling footsteps, the creak of the door. Then the maid brought a  calling card to the drawing room, for Chie.
Chie was reluctant to go to her guest; perhaps she was feeling too cozy. She and Naomi were reading at a low table set atop a charcoal brazier. A thick quilt spread over the sides of the table so their legs were  tucked inside with the heat.
“Who is it at this hour, in this weather?” Chie questioned as she picked the name card off the maid’s lacquer tray.
“Shinoda, Akira. Kobe Dental College,” she read.
 Naomi recognized the name. Chie heard a soft intake of air.
“I think you should go,” said Naomi.
Akira was waiting in the entry. He was in his early twenties, slim and serious, wearing the black  military-style uniform of a student. As he bowed—his hands hanging straight down, a black cap in one, a yellow oil-paper umbrella in the other—Chie glanced beyond him. In the glistening surface of the courtyard’s rain-drenched paving  stones, she saw his reflection like a dark double.
“Madame,” said Akira, “forgive my disruption, but I come with a matter of urgency.”
His voice was soft, refined. He straightened and stole a deferential peek at her face.
 In the dim light his eyes shone with sincerity. Chie felt herself starting to like him.
“Come inside, get out of this nasty night. Surely your business can wait for a moment or two.”
“I don’t want to trouble you. Normally I would  approach you more properly but I’ve received word of a position. I’ve an opportunity to go to America, as dentist for Seattle’s Japanese community.”
“Congratulations,” Chie said with amusement. “That is an opportunity, I’m sure. But how am I  involved?”
Even noting Naomi’s breathless reaction to the name card, Chie had no idea. Akira’s message, delivered like a formal speech, filled her with maternal amusement. You know how children speak  so earnestly, so hurriedly, so endearingly about things that have no importance in an adult’s mind? That’s how she viewed him, as a child.
It was how she viewed Naomi. Even though Naomi was eighteen and training endlessly in the arts  needed to make a good marriage, Chie had made no effort to find her a husband.
“Depending on your response, I may stay in Japan. I’ve come to ask for Naomi’s hand.”
 Suddenly Chie felt the dampness of the night. “Does Naomi know anything of your . . . ambitions?”
“We have an understanding. Please don’t judge my candidacy by the unseemliness of this proposal. I  ask directly because the use of a go-between takes much time. Either method comes down to the same thing: a matter of parental approval. If you give your consent, I become Naomi’s yoshi.* We’ll live in the House of Fuji. Without your consent, I must go to  America, to secure a new home for my bride.”
Eager to make his point, he’d been looking her full in the face. Abruptly, his voice turned gentle. “I see I’ve startled you. My humble apologies. I’ll take no more of your evening. My address is on my card. If  you don’t wish to contact me, I’ll reapproach you in two weeks’ time. Until then, good night.”
He bowed and left. Taking her ease, with effortless grace, like a cat making off with a fish.
“Mother?” Chie heard Naomi’s low voice and  turned from the door. “He has asked you?”
The sight of Naomi’s clear eyes, her dark brows gave Chie strength. Maybe his hopes were preposterous.
“Where did you meet such a fellow? Imagine! He  thinks he can marry the Fuji heir and take her to America all in the snap of his fingers!”
Chie waited for Naomi’s ripe laughter.
Naomi was silent. She stood a full half minute looking straight into Chie’s eyes. Finally, she spoke.  “I met him at my literary meeting.”
Naomi turned to go back into the house, then stopped.
 “I mean to have him.”
* a man who marries a woman of higher status and takes her family’s name
Boy breaks tradition, comes over to rich girl's house. He's polite but bold. Tells mom he wants to marry daughter. It's raining. He needs an answer soon. Mom is surprised. Daughter is on board.
SATANIC WORD COUNT: 759
CTT WORD COUNT: 34
1. Which choice best describes what happens in the passage?
Boy shows up, asks to marry girl.
DON'T look at SATAN's choices right away. FIRST come up with your own simple answer. THEN match it to one of SATAN's choices.
Matching is FASTER than elimination because you'll zoom past SATAN's clever, confusing, tempting choices. Matching is BETTER than elimination because you won't fall into any of SATAN's evil traps.
Elimination has its place. You might have two close matches and then you have to pick the best one. Go for simple over complex in these cases. If there's no other way, I sometimes fall back on elimination. But matching is my go-to strategy; it's the reason I am now almost perfect on these tests.
A) One character argues with another character who intrudes on her home.
B) One character receives a surprising request from another character.
C) One character reminisces about choices she has made over the years.
D) One character criticizes another character for pursuing an unexpected course of action.
2. Which choice best describes the developmental pattern of the passage?
Boy shows up, asks to marry girl.
Sure, it's boring to repeat answers, but boring is a weapon against SATAN. I'm sure as Hell not going to be fooled by all that "developmental pattern" crap. This is a regular old main idea question, just like the first one. Nice try, SATAN.
A) A careful analysis of a traditional practice
B) A detailed depiction of a meaningful encounter
C) A definitive response to a series of questions
D) A cheerful recounting of an amusing anecdote
3. As used in line 1 and line 65, “directly” most nearly means
"Akira came directly/by himself/alone/in-person, breaking all tradition."
C) without mediation.
D) with precision.
4. Which reaction does Akira most fear from Chie?
That she will say No.
Note that this answer is perfectly correct and is the simplest, most obvious answer. SATAN's answer will be vague or disguised in some way, but it must match the simple version.
A) She will consider his proposal inappropriate.
B) She will mistake his earnestness for immaturity.
C) She will consider his unscheduled visit an imposition.
D) She will underestimate the sincerity of his emotions.
5. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Line 33 (“His voice . . . refined”)
B) Lines 49-51 (“You . . . mind”)
C) Lines 63-64 (“Please . . . proposal”)
D) Lines 71-72 (“Eager . . . face”)
6. In the passage, Akira addresses Chie with
A) affection but not genuine love.
B) objectivity but not complete impartiality.
C) amusement but not mocking disparagement.
D) respect but not utter deference.
7. The main purpose of the first paragraph is to
A) describe a culture.
B) criticize a tradition.
C) question a suggestion.
D) analyze a reaction.
8. As used in line 2, “form” most nearly means
tradition, the way you're supposed to do it, correctness, proper procedures.
"Had he followed form/tradition/the rules/propriety . . . would Chie have bee more receptive?"
My answer, "tradition," is taken right from the passage. Sometimes I say (or even write down) a few words or phrases on these "how is this word being used" questions to help clarify the in-context meaning. Try the "multiple match" method if you find yourself getting these wrong a lot. You can also put SATAN's answer into the sentence and see how it reads if, for example, you are between two answers.
As I've aged I've picked up more and more words, so SATAN has a tough time getting me on vocabulary. But if you are faced with a hard version of this question with lots of obscure words, sometimes there is nothing you can do. If you don't know the word, you don't know the word. Note that it should fit pretty well, so if you know three choices really don't fit, don't be afraid to guess the fourth choice even if you don't know the word.
9. Why does Akira say his meeting with Chie is “a matter of urgency” (line 32)?
A) He fears that his own parents will disapprove of Naomi.
B) He worries that Naomi will reject him and marry someone else.
C) He has been offered an attractive job in another country.
D) He knows that Chie is unaware of his feelings for Naomi.
10. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Line 39 (“I don’t . . . you”)
B) Lines 39-42 (“Normally . . . community”)
C) Lines 58-59 (“Depending . . . Japan”)
D) Lines 72-73 (“I see . . . you”)
Questions 11-21 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.
This passage is adapted from Francis J. Flynn and Gabrielle S. Adams, "Money Can't Buy Love: Asymmetric Beliefs about Gift Price and Feelings of Appreciation."
Every day, millions of shoppers hit the stores in full force—both online and on foot—searching frantically for the perfect gift. Last year, Americans spent over $30 billion at retail stores in the month of  December alone. Aside from purchasing holiday gifts, most people regularly buy presents for other occasions throughout the year, including weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, graduations, and baby showers. This frequent experience of gift-giving can  engender ambivalent feelings in gift-givers. Many relish the opportunity to buy presents because gift-giving offers a powerful means to build stronger bonds with one’s closest peers. At the same time, many dread the thought of buying gifts; they worry  that their purchases will disappoint rather than delight the intended recipients.
Anthropologists describe gift-giving as a positive social process, serving various political, religious, and psychological functions. Economists, however, offer  a less favorable view. According to Waldfogel (1993), gift-giving represents an objective waste of resources. People buy gifts that recipients would not choose to buy on their own, or at least not spend as much money to purchase (a phenomenon referred to as  "the deadweight loss of Christmas”). To wit, givers are likely to spend $100 to purchase a gift that receivers would spend only $80 to buy themselves. This ‘‘deadweight loss” suggests that gift-givers are not very good at predicting what gifts others will  appreciate. That in itself is not surprising to social psychologists. Research has found that people often struggle to take account of others’ perspectives— their insights are subject to egocentrism, social projection, and multiple attribution errors.
 What is surprising is that gift-givers have considerable experience acting as both gift-givers and gift-recipients, but nevertheless tend to overspend each time they set out to purchase a meaningful gift. In the present research, we propose a unique  psychological explanation for this overspending problem—i.e., that gift-givers equate how much they spend with how much recipients will appreciate the gift (the more expensive the gift, the stronger a gift-recipient’s feelings of appreciation). Although a  link between gift price and feelings of appreciation might seem intuitive to gift-givers, such an assumption may be unfounded. Indeed, we propose that gift-recipients will be less inclined to base their feelings of appreciation on the magnitude of a gift  than givers assume.
Why do gift-givers assume that gift price is closely linked to gift-recipients’ feelings of appreciation? Perhaps givers believe that bigger (i.e., more expensive) gifts convey stronger signals of  thoughtfulness and consideration. According to Camerer (1988) and others, gift-giving represents a symbolic ritual, whereby gift-givers attempt to signal their positive attitudes toward the intended recipient and their willingness to invest resources in a future  relationship. In this sense, gift-givers may be motivated to spend more money on a gift in order to send a “stronger signal” to their intended recipient. As for gift-recipients, they may not construe smaller and larger gifts as representing smaller and larger  signals of thoughtfulness and consideration.
The notion of gift-givers and gift-recipients being unable to account for the other party’s perspective seems puzzling because people slip in and out of these roles every day, and, in some cases, multiple  times in the course of the same day. Yet, despite the extensive experience that people have as both givers and receivers, they often struggle to transfer information gained from one role (e.g., as a giver) and apply it in another, complementary role (e.g., as  a receiver). In theoretical terms, people fail to utilize information about their own preferences and experiences in order to produce more efficient outcomes in their exchange relations. In practical terms, people spend hundreds of dollars each year on  gifts, but somehow never learn to calibrate their gift expenditures according to personal insight.
People give gifts a lot. They love it. They hate it. They spend ridiculous amounts of money. They think they are building friendships. They should know better.
SATANIC WORD COUNT: 652
CTT WORD COUNT: 27
11. The authors most likely use the examples in lines 1-9 of the passage (“Every . . . showers”) to highlight the
A) regularity with which people shop for gifts.
B) recent increase in the amount of money spent on gifts.
C) anxiety gift shopping causes for consumers.
D) number of special occasions involving gift-giving.
12. In line 10, the word “ambivalent” most nearly means
Gift giving is both good AND bad.
"The frequent experience of gift-giving can engender ambivalent/multiple/opposite/simultaneously good and bad feelings in gift-givers . . ."
Ambivalent means you go back and forth, you can't decide, you are of two minds. People "relish" gift giving, but also "dread" it. It's a love-hate relationship. SATAN, probably for reasons having to do with his childhood, loves dichotomies like good/bad, love/hate, relish/dread, etc.
13. The authors indicate that people value gift-giving because they feel it
makes your friends like you more/helps you connect with your friends/lets friends know you care.
A) functions as a form of self-expression.
B) is an inexpensive way to show appreciation.
C) requires the gift-recipient to reciprocate.
D) can serve to strengthen a relationship.
14. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
"People give gifts to strengthen/improve relationships/friendships."
A) Lines 10-13 (“Many . . . peers”)
B) Lines 22-23 (“People . . . own”)
C) Lines 31-32 (“Research . . . perspectives”)
D) Lines 44-47 (“Although . . . unfounded”)
15. The “social psychologists” mentioned in paragraph 2 (lines 17-34) would likely describe the “deadweight loss” phenomenon as
16. The passage indicates that the assumption made by gift-givers in lines 41-44 may be
The idea that big bucks mean your gift will be more appreciated may be "unfounded" (line 47) which means wrong/not true/can't be proven or something like that.
17. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Lines 53-55 (“Perhaps . . . consideration”)
B) Lines 55-60 (“According . . . relationship”)
C) Lines 63-65 (“As . . . consideration”)
D) Lines 75-78 (“In . . . relations”)
18. As it is used in line 54, “convey” most nearly means
get across to someone that you care.
"Perhaps gift-givers believe that bigger gifts convey/give/get across/show stronger signals of thoughtfulness and consideration."
19. The authors refer to work by Camerer and others (line 56) in order to
describe gift-giving as social signaling.
In lines 51-52, the authors ask why? do people think money buys appreciation. They propose that the answer is social signaling. Next, they say Camerer connects gift-giving and social signaling. Finally, the authors restate their proposed answer.
A) offer an explanation.
B) introduce an argument.
C) question a motive.
D) support a conclusion.
20. The graph following the passage offers evidence that gift-givers base their predictions of how much a gift will be appreciated on
how much they spend.
Colleges like the ACT because the ACT has a lot of chart reading on it, and so SATAN has decided to include charts. For this question and the next, there is actually no need to look at the chart at all because we already know from the passage that gift-givers worship spending.
If you do look at the chart, you might notice that they have some weird "mean appreciation" scale. We don't care exactly what this is or how it is measured (SATAN doesn't know either, trust me).
Apparently gift-givers think fancy gifts get an appreciation of 6 or so compared to 5.5 for a cheap gift. Recipients actually seem rate the cheap gifts a little higher on the appreciation scale.
A) the appreciation level of the gift-recipients.
B) the monetary value of the gift.
C) their own desires for the gifts they purchase.
D) their relationship with the gift-recipients.
21. The authors would likely attribute the differences in gift-giver and recipient mean appreciation as represented in the graph to
stupid/clueless gift givers.
Any of these adjectives work: stupid, misled, confused, clueless, wrong, mixed up, bereft of knowledge, empty-headed, simple-minded, naive, weak-brained, hare-brained, half-witted, block-headed, obtuse, etc., etc.
There are specifics in the passage regarding exactly what is wrong with the gift-givers' reasoning (egocentrism, social projection, and multiple attribution errors, blah, blah, blah from lines 33 and 34). The great thing about the matching technique is that we can simplify all that fancy language to "stupid," get the answer, and move on without wasting time with the fancy language.
Watch out! SATAN's use of the phrase "would likely" is a trick. SATAN is hoping this trick will cause you to think outside the bounds of the passage and make up a "likely" scenario. Don't fall for it: "would likely attribute" simply means "did attribute."
Remember: SATAN IS INSECURE. He never strays far from the passage. The words "likely" and "implies" and "suggests" are SATANSPEAK for "definitely" and "states clearly" and "says." Once in a blue moon, SATAN will take a baby step away from the passage, but he never gets further than spitting distance.
A) an inability to shift perspective.
B) an increasingly materialistic culture.
C) a growing opposition to gift-giving.
D) a misunderstanding of intentions.
Questions 22-31 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.
This passage is adapted from J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick, “Genetical Implications of the Structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid.” ©1953 by Nature Publishing Group. Watson and Crick deduced the structure of DNA using evidence from Rosalind Franklin and R. G. Gosling’s X-ray crystallography diagrams of DNA and from Erwin Chargaff’s data on the base composition of DNA.
The chemical formula of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is now well established. The molecule is a very long chain, the backbone of which consists of a regular alternation of sugar and phosphate groups.  To each sugar is attached a nitrogenous base, which can be of four different types. Two of the possible bases—adenine and guanine—are purines, and the other two—thymine and cytosine—are pyrimidines. So far as is known, the sequence of bases along the  chain is irregular. The monomer unit, consisting of phosphate, sugar and base, is known as a nucleotide.
The first feature of our structure which is of biological interest is that it consists not of one chain, but of two. These two chains are both coiled around  a common fiber axis. It has often been assumed that since there was only one chain in the chemical formula there would only be one in the structural unit. However, the density, taken with the X-ray evidence, suggests very strongly that there are two.
 The other biologically important feature is the manner in which the two chains are held together. This is done by hydrogen bonds between the bases. The bases are joined together in pairs, a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single  base from the other. The important point is that only certain pairs of bases will fit into the structure. One member of a pair must be a purine and the other a pyrimidine in order to bridge between the two chains. If a pair consisted of two purines, for  example, there would not be room for it.
We believe that the bases will be present almost entirely in their most probable forms. If this is true, the conditions for forming hydrogen bonds are more restrictive, and the only pairs of bases possible are:  adenine with thymine, and guanine with cytosine. Adenine, for example, can occur on either chain; but when it does, its partner on the other chain must always be thymine.
The phosphate-sugar backbone of our model is  completely regular, but any sequence of the pairs of bases can fit into the structure. It follows that in a long molecule many different permutations are possible, and it therefore seems likely that the precise sequence of bases is the code which carries the  genetical information. If the actual order of the bases on one of the pair of chains were given, one could write down the exact order of the bases on the other one, because of the specific pairing. Thus one chain is, as it were, the complement of the other, and it is  this feature which suggests how the deoxyribonucleic acid molecule might duplicate itself.
DNA is made of two chains. Bases pair off, adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine. The bases link the chains together. If you know the sequence of one chain, you know the sequence of the other chain. This is the secret of genetics.
SATANIC WORD COUNT: 470
CTT WORD COUNT: 44
22. The authors use the word “backbone” in lines 3 and 39 to indicate that
there is a regular alternating structure.
I don't know exactly why they call it a "backbone" — I guess because a backbone has bumps and depressions that alternate. I just looked at lines 2-4 and focused on the words "regular" and "alternating."
A) only very long chains of DNA can be taken from an organism with a spinal column.
B) the main structure of a chain in a DNA molecule is composed of repeating units.
C) a chain in a DNA molecule consists entirely of phosphate groups or of sugars.
D) nitrogenous bases form the main structural unit of DNA.
23. A student claims that nitrogenous bases pair randomly with one another. Which of the following statements in the passage contradicts the student’s claim?
Something about bases only pairing a certain way — the opposite of randomness.
A) Lines 5-6 (“To each . . . types”)
B) Lines 9-10 (“So far . . . irregular”)
C) Lines 23-25 (“The bases . . . other”)
D) Lines 27-29 (“One member . . . chains”)
24. In the second paragraph (lines 12-19), what do the authors claim to be a feature of biological interest?
A) The chemical formula of DNA
B) The common fiber axis
C) The X-ray evidence
D) DNA consisting of two chains
25. The authors’ main purpose of including the information about X-ray evidence and density is to
A) establish that DNA is the molecule that carries the genetic information.
B) present an alternate hypothesis about the composition of a nucleotide.
C) provide support for the authors’ claim about the number of chains in a molecule of DNA.
D) confirm the relationship between the density of DNA and the known chemical formula of DNA.
26. Based on the passage, the authors’ statement “If a pair consisted of two purines, for example, there would not be room for it” (lines 29-30) implies that a pair
of purines is big.
My answer is obviously ridiculously simple. That's okay. The trick here is not to let the word "implies" take you off on some wild SATANIC goose chase. In this case, replace the word "implies" with the phrase, "is the same thing as saying" and you will be clearer on what to do.
A) of purines would be larger than the space between a sugar and a phosphate group.
B) of purines would be larger than a pair consisting of a purine and a pyrimidine.
C) of pyrimidines would be larger than a pair of purines.
D) consisting of a purine and a pyrimidine would be larger than a pair of pyrimidines.
27. The authors’ use of the words “exact,” “specific,” and “complement” in lines 47-49 in the final paragraph functions mainly to
say that if you know one chain, you automatically know the other chain.
A) confirm that the nucleotide sequences are known for most molecules of DNA.
B) counter the claim that the sequences of bases along a chain can occur in any order.
C) support the claim that the phosphate-sugar backbone of the authors’ model is completely regular.
D) emphasize how one chain of DNA may serve as a template to be copied during DNA replication.
28. Based on the table and passage, which choice gives the correct percentages of the purines in yeast DNA?
Adenine and guanine are the purines; it's 31.3 and 18.7 for yeast.
This is meant to cost you time because you have to look up in the passage which is purine since it doesn't say in the table. If you are a test taker extraordinaire, you underlined lines 6-8 in the passage because you suspected this would be in a question. I don't do a lot of underlining, but it isn't a bad technique to develop if it works for you as it can save you time.
A) 17.1% and 18.7%
B) 17.1% and 32.9%
C) 18.7% and 31.3%
D) 31.3% and 32.9%
29. Do the data in the table support the authors’ proposed pairing of bases in DNA?
Yes. There are two columns of roughly equal numbers for adenine and thymine and two columns of roughly equal numbers for guanine and cytosine. It's close enough to make us believe they are pairing off.
Don't look for anything fancy in these charts: about equal vs not equal; increasing vs decreasing; big vs small — that's SATAN's level of analysis.
A) Yes, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of thymine, and the percentage of guanine is closest to the percentage of cytosine.
B) Yes, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of guanine, and the percentage of cytosine is closest to the percentage of thymine.
C) No, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of thymine, and the percentage of guanine is closest to the percentage of cytosine.
D) No, because for each given organism, the percentage of adenine is closest to the percentage of guanine, and the percentage of cytosine is closest to the percentage of thymine.
30. According to the table, which of the following pairs of base percentages in sea urchin DNA provides evidence in support of the answer to the previous question?
A) 17.3% and 17.7%
B) 17.3% and 32.1%
C) 17.3% and 32.8%
D) 17.7% and 32.8%
31. Based on the table, is the percentage of adenine in each organism’s DNA the same or does it vary, and which statement made by the authors is most consistent with that data?
Varies from 25 to 33 or so. Look for a statement about different amounts in different organisms.
A) The same; “Two of . . . pyrimidines” (lines 6-8)
B) The same; “The important . . . structure” (lines 25-26)
C) It varies; “Adenine . . . thymine” (lines 36-38)
D) It varies; “It follows . . . information” (lines 41-45)
Questions 32-41 are based on the following passage.
This passage is adapted from Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas. ©1938 by Harcourt, Inc. Here, Woolf considers the situation of women in English society.
Close at hand is a bridge over the River Thames, an admirable vantage ground for us to make a survey. The river flows beneath; barges pass, laden with timber, bursting with corn; there on one side are  the domes and spires of the city; on the other, Westminster and the Houses of Parliament. It is a place to stand on by the hour, dreaming. But not now. Now we are pressed for time. Now we are here to consider facts; now we must fix our eyes upon the  procession—the procession of the sons of educated men.
There they go, our brothers who have been educated at public schools and universities, mounting those steps, passing in and out of those  doors, ascending those pulpits, preaching, teaching, administering justice, practising medicine, transacting business, making money. It is a solemn sight always—a procession, like a caravanserai crossing a desert. . . . But now, for the past twenty  years or so, it is no longer a sight merely, a photograph, or fresco scrawled upon the walls of time, at which we can look with merely an esthetic appreciation. For there, trapesing along at the tail end of the procession, we go ourselves. And that  makes a difference. We who have looked so long at the pageant in books, or from a curtained window watched educated men leaving the house at about nine-thirty to go to an office, returning to the house at about six-thirty from an office, need look passively  no longer. We too can leave the house, can mount those steps, pass in and out of those doors, . . . make money, administer justice. . . . We who now agitate these humble pens may in another century or two speak from a pulpit. Nobody will dare contradict us  then; we shall be the mouthpieces of the divine spirit — a solemn thought, is it not? Who can say whether, as time goes on, we may not dress in military uniform, with gold lace on our breasts, swords at our sides, and something like the old  family coal-scuttle on our heads, save that that venerable object was never decorated with plumes of white horsehair. You laugh — indeed the shadow of the private house still makes those dresses look a little queer. We have worn private clothes so  long. . . . But we have not come here to laugh, or to
talk of fashions — men’s and women’s. We are here, on the bridge, to ask ourselves certain questions. And they are very important questions; and we have very little time in which to answer them. The  questions that we have to ask and to answer about that procession during this moment of transition are so important that they may well change the lives of all men and women for ever. For we have to ask ourselves, here and now, do we wish to join that  procession, or don’t we? On what terms shall we join that procession? Above all, where is it leading us, the procession of educated men? The moment is short; it may last five years; ten years, or perhaps only a matter of a few months longer. . . . But, you will  object, you have no time to think; you have your battles to fight, your rent to pay, your bazaars to organize. That excuse shall not serve you, Madam. As you know from your own experience, and there are facts that prove it, the daughters of educated men  have always done their thinking from hand to mouth; not under green lamps at study tables in the cloisters of secluded colleges. They have thought while they stirred the pot, while they rocked the cradle. It was thus that they won us the right to our  brand-new sixpence. It falls to us now to go on thinking; how are we to spend that sixpence? Think we must. Let us think in offices; in omnibuses; while we are standing in the crowd watching Coronations and Lord Mayor’s Shows; let us think . . . in the  gallery of the House of Commons; in the Law Courts; let us think at baptisms and marriages and funerals. Let us never cease from thinking—what is this “civilization” in which we find ourselves? What are these ceremonies and why should we take part in  them? What are these professions and why should we make money out of them? Where in short is it leading us, the procession of the sons of educated men?
Women are now part of society and have the power to change it. Women must decide, right now, what sort of society they want.
SATANIC WORD COUNT: 737
CTT WORD COUNT: 24
32. The main purpose of the passage is to
A) emphasize the value of a tradition.
B) stress the urgency of an issue.
C) highlight the severity of social divisions.
D) question the feasibility of an undertaking.
33. The central claim of the passage is that
women must consider their new role in society.
Yes, I am repeating myself. I hope fire is coming out of SATAN's ears. "Main purpose" and "central claim" are the same thing in SATAN's simple little world. Simplicity is your magic SATAN-killing sword. Wield it well.
A) educated women face a decision about how to engage with existing institutions.
B) women can have positions of influence in English society only if they give up some of their traditional roles.
C) the male monopoly on power in English society has had grave and continuing effects.
D) the entry of educated women into positions of power traditionally held by men will transform those positions.
34. Woolf uses the word “we” throughout the passage mainly to
A) reflect the growing friendliness among a group of people.
B) advance the need for candor among a group of people.
C) establish a sense of solidarity among a group of people.
D) reinforce the need for respect among a group of people.
35. According to the passage, Woolf chooses the setting of the bridge because it
A) is conducive to a mood of fanciful reflection.
B) provides a good view of the procession of the sons of educated men.
C) is within sight of historic episodes to which she alludes.
D) is symbolic of the legacy of past and present sons of educated men.
36. Woolf indicates that the procession she describes in the passage
A) has come to have more practical influence in recent years.
B) has become a celebrated feature of English public life.
C) includes all of the richest and most powerful men in England.
D) has become less exclusionary in its membership in recent years.
37. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Lines 12-17 (“There . . . money”)
B) Lines 17-19 (“It . . . desert”)
C) Lines 23-24 (“For . . . ourselves”)
D) Lines 30-34 (“We . . . pulpit”)
38. Woolf characterizes the questions in lines 53-57 (“For we . . . men”) as both
important, urgent, wide-ranging, impactful, a big deal, historic.
They are difficult and complex questions also, but the author doesn't directly say that.
A) controversial and threatening.
B) weighty and unanswerable.
C) momentous and pressing.
D) provocative and mysterious.
39. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Lines 46-47 (“We . . . questions”)
B) Lines 48-49 (“And . . . them”)
C) Line 57 (“The moment . . . short”)
D) Line 62 (“That . . . Madam”)
40. Which choice most closely captures the meaning of the figurative “sixpence” referred to in lines 70 and 71?
The sixpence is the power/right/ability women now have to participate in society and perhaps change it.
41. The range of places and occasions listed in lines 72-76 (“Let us . . . funerals”) mainly serves to emphasize how
A) novel the challenge faced by women is.
B) pervasive the need for critical reflection is.
C) complex the political and social issues of the day are.
D) enjoyable the career possibilities for women are.
Questions 42-52 are based on the following passages.
Passage 1 is adapted from Michael Slezak, “Space Mining: the Next Gold Rush?” ©2013 by New Scientist. Passage 2 is from the editors of New Scientist, “Taming the Final Frontier.” ©2013 by New Scientist.
Follow the money and you will end up in space. That’s the message from a first-of-its-kind forum on mining beyond Earth.
Convened in Sydney by the Australian Centre for  Space Engineering Research, the event brought together mining companies, robotics experts, lunar scientists, and government agencies that are all working to make space mining a reality. The forum comes hot on the heels of the  2012 unveiling of two private asteroid-mining firms. Planetary Resources of Washington says it will launch its first prospecting telescopes in two years, while Deep Space Industries of Virginia hopes to be harvesting metals from asteroids by 2020. Another  commercial venture that sprung up in 2012, Golden Spike of Colorado, will be offering trips to the moon, including to potential lunar miners.
Within a few decades, these firms may be meeting earthly demands for precious metals, such as  platinum and gold, and the rare earth elements vital for personal electronics, such as yttrium and lanthanum. But like the gold rush pioneers who transformed the western United States, the first space miners won’t just enrich themselves. They also hope  to build an off-planet economy free of any bonds with Earth, in which the materials extracted and processed from the moon and asteroids are delivered for space-based projects.
In this scenario, water mined from other  worlds could become the most desired commodity. “In the desert, what’s worth more: a kilogram of gold or a kilogram of water?” asks Kris Zacny of HoneyBee Robotics in New York. “Gold is useless. Water will let you live.”
 Water ice from the moon’s poles could be sent to astronauts on the International Space Station for drinking or as a radiation shield. Splitting water into oxygen and hydrogen makes spacecraft fuel, so ice-rich asteroids could become interplanetary  refuelling stations.
Companies are eyeing the iron, silicon, and aluminium in lunar soil and asteroids, which could be used in 3D printers to make spare parts or machinery. Others want to turn space dirt into  concrete for landing pads, shelters, and roads.
The motivation for deep-space travel is shifting from discovery to economics. The past year has seen a flurry of proposals aimed at bringing celestial riches down to Earth. No doubt this will make a few  billionaires even wealthier, but we all stand to gain: the mineral bounty and spin-off technologies could enrich us all.
But before the miners start firing up their rockets, we should pause for thought. At first glance, space  mining seems to sidestep most environmental concerns: there is (probably!) no life on asteroids, and thus no habitats to trash. But its consequences —both here on Earth and in space—merit careful consideration.
 Part of this is about principles. Some will argue that space’s “magnificent desolation” is not ours to despoil, just as they argue that our own planet’s poles should remain pristine. Others will suggest that glutting ourselves on space’s riches is not an  acceptable alternative to developing more sustainable ways of earthly life.
History suggests that those will be hard lines to hold, and it may be difficult to persuade the public that such barren environments are worth preserving.  After all, they exist in vast abundance, and even fewer people will experience them than have walked through Antarctica’s icy landscapes.
There’s also the emerging off-world economy to consider. The resources that are valuable in orbit and  beyond may be very different to those we prize on Earth. Questions of their stewardship have barely been broached—and the relevant legal and regulatory framework is fragmentary, to put it mildly.
Space miners, like their earthly counterparts, are  often reluctant to engage with such questions. One speaker at last week’s space-mining forum in Sydney, Australia, concluded with a plea that regulation should be avoided. But miners have much to gain from a broad agreement on the for-profit  exploitation of space. Without consensus, claims will be disputed, investments risky, and the gains made insecure. It is in all of our long-term interests to seek one out.
Passage 1: Companies are forming. They are going to mine metals and maybe get rich and create a space-based economy. Passage 2: Wait! We have to be careful about trashing space. We need rules.
SATANIC WORD COUNT: 775
CTT WORD COUNT: 31
42. In lines 9-17, the author of Passage 1 mentions several companies primarily to
show that the space mining thing is for real.
Line 2: ". . . first-of-its-kind forum . . ." Line 8: ". . . make space mining a reality."
A) note the technological advances that make space mining possible.
B) provide evidence of the growing interest in space mining.
C) emphasize the large profits to be made from space mining.
D) highlight the diverse ways to carry out space mining operations.
43. The author of Passage 1 indicates that space mining could have which positive effect?
Get metals we need.
There are probably a million positive effects of space mining, but this is the simplest and was directly mentioned. Simple is your main weapon against SATAN.
A) It could yield materials important to Earth’s economy.
B) It could raise the value of some precious metals on Earth.
C) It could create unanticipated technological innovations.
D) It could change scientists’ understanding of space resources.
44. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Lines 18-22 (“Within . . . lanthanum”)
B) Lines 24-28 (“They . . . projects”)
C) Lines 29-30 (“In this . . . commodity”)
D) Lines 41-44 (“Companies . . . machinery”)
45. As used in line 19, “demands” most nearly means
needs or requirements.
"Within a few decades, these firms may be meeting earthly demands/needs/requirements for precious metals . . ."
46. What function does the discussion of water in lines 35-40 serve in Passage 1?
Water is good for drinking, shielding, and fuel.
I'm not falling for the SATANIC "function" of the paragraph nonsense. I just summarized it. This kind of simplicity is deadly to SATAN.
A) It continues an extended comparison that begins in the previous paragraph.
B) It provides an unexpected answer to a question raised in the previous paragraph.
C) It offers hypothetical examples supporting a claim made in the previous paragraph.
D) It examines possible outcomes of a proposal put forth in the previous paragraph.
47. The central claim of Passage 2 is that space mining has positive potential but
A) it will end up encouraging humanity’s reckless treatment of the environment.
B) its effects should be thoughtfully considered before it becomes a reality.
C) such potential may not include replenishing key resources that are disappearing on Earth.
D) experts disagree about the commercial viability of the discoveries it could yield.
48. As used in line 68, “hold” most nearly means
stick to your guns, believe in your principles.
"History suggests that those will be hard lines to hold/stick to/stay with/make permanent/set in stone, and it may be difficult to persuade the public that such barren environments are worth preserving."
49. Which statement best describes the relationship between the passages?
Passage 1: Space mining good. Passage 2: Space mining good especially with rules.
Note the power of simplicity here. Simplicity protects you from being slimed by SATANIC gobbledygook.
A) Passage 2 refutes the central claim advanced in Passage 1.
B) Passage 2 illustrates the phenomenon described in more general terms in Passage 1.
C) Passage 2 argues against the practicality of the proposals put forth in Passage 1.
D) Passage 2 expresses reservations about developments discussed in Passage 1.
50. The author of Passage 2 would most likely respond to the discussion of the future of space mining in lines 18-28, Passage 1, by claiming that such a future
Always interpret SATAN's "would most likely respond" as "did actually say." SATAN never speculates. SATAN is like an infant: if he can't put it in his mouth, it doesn't exist.
A) is inconsistent with the sustainable use of space resources.
B) will be difficult to bring about in the absence of regulations.
C) cannot be attained without technologies that do not yet exist.
D) seems certain to affect Earth’s economy in a negative way.
51. Which choice provides the best evidence for the answer to the previous question?
A) Lines 60-63 (“Some . . . pristine”)
B) Lines 74-76 (“The resources . . . Earth”)
C) Lines 81-83 (“One . . . avoided”)
D) Lines 85-87 (“Without . . . insecure”)
52. Which point about the resources that will be highly valued in space is implicit in Passage 1 and explicit in Passage 2?
We're looking for something about resources from Passage 2 that was also clear from Passage 1.
Remember, SATAN doesn't do "implicit." You never have to read between the lines on the SAT. The bit about resources has to be clear as day in BOTH passages but will perhaps be slightly clearer (explicit) in Passage 2.
A) They may be different resources from those that are valuable on Earth.
B) They will be valuable only if they can be harvested cheaply.
C) They are likely to be primarily precious metals and rare earth elements.
D) They may increase in value as those same resources become rare on Earth.